Specific regions in the rat larynx exhibit cellular changes in response to inhaled xenobiotics. These regions include the base of the epiglottis, ventral pouch, and medial surfaces of the vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages1,2. In order to collect information on the usefulness of trimming techniques, the influence of different vehicles, the impact of different application routes in toxicity studies, and differences between induced vs. spontaneous lesions, the data obtained from a large number of inhalation and non-inhalation studies performed in Wistar RCCHanTM: Wist rats at Harlan Laboratories Ltd Switzerland, all evaluated or reviewed by the same pathologist, were compiled for a detailed review. The value of different trimming techniques was deemed to be greatest for transverse and sagittolongitudinal section techniques, as compared to horizontolongitudinally section techniques. The comparison of lesions encountered in control rats of inhalation studies treated with different vehicles did not reveal differences in the type, distribution pattern, incidence and/or severity of spontaneous lesions. The types of lesions were also independent of different application routes in non-inhalation studies compared to inhalation studies. The pattern of spontaneous lesions in the rodent larynx was determined by degenerative and inflammatory lesions starting most often in the submucosal glands by desiccated secretion followed by mineralization and local inflammation or were induced by impacted foreign bodies. Squamous metaplasia was recorded in the respiratory epithelium overlaying the ventral gland as a spontaneous lesion in male Wistar rats from inhalation studies with a maxim of 20.0% in an inhalation oncogenicity study. Induced metaplastic changes recorded in the larynx were reversible. Other induced lesions in inhalation studies consisted of submucosal edema, necrosis, inflammation and/or granuloma. Induced lesions in non-inhalation studies were found to be exclusively related to reflux laryngitis or food impaction. It is concluded, that in rodents induced lesions of the larynx differ in type, distribution pattern, severity and incidence from spontaneous lesions.
Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal thyroid hormonal homeostasis and no difference in the incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in oncogenicity studies.
To clarify the modifying effect of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC), which has antioxidative ability, on hepatocarcinogenesis promoted by fenofibrate (FF), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist, male F344/N rats were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiator followed by administration of a diet containing 3,000 ppm of FF for 16 weeks. Two-thirds partial hepatectomy was performed 1 week after the FF treatment. Additionally, NAC treatments for 14 weeks from 2 weeks after the FF treatment were performed. Although the expression level of tumor protein p53 (Tp53) mRNA decreased in the DEN+FF+NAC group as compared with that in the DEN+FF group, no significant differences between the DEN+FF and DEN+FF+NAC groups were observed in the number of hepatocellular altered foci and activities of hepatocellular proliferation. In addition, the results of an antioxidant enzyme assay and measurement of the amounts of total glutathione in the liver revealed no significant difference between the DEN+FF and DEN+FF+NAC groups; although no significant differences were observed in many genes between the DEN+FF and DEN+FF+NAC groups, only glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2) mRNA increased in the DEN+FF+NAC group as compared with the DEN+FF group. The results under the present experimental conditions indicate no obvious modifying effect of NAC on liver tumor promotion by FF in rats.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nimesulide or eugenol on N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-initiated early hepatocarcinogenesis in F344 male rats. Both compounds did not alter the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, the enzyme that plays a major role in the activation of DEN to genotoxic products; however, nimesulide induced the expression of CYP1A1. Western blot analysis revealed that COX-1 and COX-2 protein expressions were not modulated by DEN compared with normal controls. Furthermore, post-initiation feeding with nimesulide or eugenol did not modulate COX-2 protein expression in normal or DEN-treated rats, whereas eugenol significantly increased the liver prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels of DEN-injected animals compared with the DEN controls. Ultimately, nimesulide or eugenol did not modify DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis as evidenced by insignificant changes in the number and size of preneoplastic placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) positive liver foci compared with the DEN controls. These results suggest that COX-2, as well as prostaglandin E2, may play no role in the post-initiation development of DEN-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis at an early stage.
In the present study, we compared the cell damage response in skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue when exposed to doxorubicin. This was carried out by means of a less invasive informative substitute to endomyocardiac biopsy based on Hsp70 immunodetection and a subcellular analysis of the nucleolus. Male Sprague Dawley rats (62 g body weight) were randomly distributed into 3 group, the control and doxorubicin I and doxorubicin II groups, in which 15 and 25 mg/kg body weight of doxorubicin (0.1 ml, i.v.) was administered, respectively. After 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes, portions of the left and right ventricle wall and interventricle wall, together with skeletal muscle from the posterior and anterior member, were prepared for Hsp70 immunodetection by Western blot analysis and ultrastructural study using the thin cut technique. Differential cell response between the control and treated groups was observed in Hsp70 immunodetection and at the subcellular level. In the control group, the Hsp70 recognition levels and typical normal nucleolar morphology were similar, while the treated groups showed variable-dependent Hsp70 recognition and segregation of nucleolar components, forming ring-like figures of a variable-independent nature. Comparison of cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue cell response to doxorubicin toxic aggression revealed parallelism in terms of Hsp70 accumulation in certain regions of both tissues (15 mg/kg body weight of doxorubicin), which suggests that replacing endomyocardiac biopsy analysis with skeletal muscle analysis may be a safe option.
Previously, we reported α2-macroglobulin (α2M) to be a novel marker characteristic of rat hepatocellular preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions negative for hitherto well-established markers. In the present study, we further examined other candidate markers with specificity for the same type of lesions. Glutathione S-transferase-placental form (GST-P)-negative hepatocellular altered foci (HAF) were generated using a two-stage (initiation and promotion) carcinogenesis protocol with N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and either Wy-14,643 or clofibrate, two peroxisome proliferators. Microarray analysis using total RNAs isolated from laser-microdissected GST-P-negative HAF (amphophilic cell foci) and adjacent normal tissues was conducted along with immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Staining for glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) was detected in GST-P-negative HAF and hepatocellular adenomas, and slightly increased GRP78 mRNA expression was observed in the lesions by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Thus, an early increase of GRP78 expression in hepatocarcinogenesis is likely a feature of the amphophilic subset of HAF.
Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disorder caused by bacterial infection and characterized by gas accumulation within the bladder wall with cyst formation. This report describes the histopathological characteristics of emphysematous cystitis found in a diabetic female beagle induced by streptozotocin and alloxan. Macroscopically, multiple cyst-like structures were observed on the cut surface of the urinary mucosa. During fixation, small specimens cut from the mucosa floated on the surface of the fixative solution. Histopathologically, multiple cysts were lined with a single layer of flattened cells found to be immunohistochemically positive for vimentin, partially positive for α-smooth muscle actin or macrophage scavenger receptor, class A, and thought to be myofibroblasts, fibroblasts or macrophages. Multinucleated giant cells were observed around the cysts, and gram-negative short bacilli were observed in the lumen of the urinary bladder. From these findings, this case was diagnosed as emphysematous cystitis.