Among the many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, citrinin (CTN), patulin (PAT), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce dermal toxicity and/or tumorigenesis in rodent models. T-2 toxin, CTN, PAT and OTA induce apoptosis in mouse or rat skin. PAT, AFB1 and OTA have tumor initiating properties, and OTA is also a tumor promoter in mouse skin. This paper reviews the molecular mechanisms of dermal toxicity and tumorigenesis induced in rodent models by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-mediated pathways.
The primary function of the placenta is to act as an interface between the dam and fetus. The anatomic structure of the chorioallantoic placenta in eutherian mammals varies between different animal species. The placental types in eutherian mammals are classified from various standpoints based on the gross shape, the histological structure of the materno-fetal interface, the type of materno-fetal interdigitation, etc. Particularly, the histological structure is generally considered one of the most useful and instructive classifications for functionally describing placental type. In this system, three main types are recognized according to the cell layers comprising the interhemal area: (1) epitheliochorial type (horses, pigs and ruminants), (2) endotheliochorial type (carnivores) and (3) hemochorial type (primates, rodents and rabbits). The number of cell layers in the interhemal area is considered to modify the transfer of nutrients between maternal and fetal blood and is one of the important factors with respect to the difference in placental permeability between animal species. Therefore, in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, careful attention should be paid to the histological structure of the interhemal area when extrapolating information concerning placental transfer characteristics to different animal species.
D-serine is a well-known activator of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors; however, little is known about the teratogenic effects of D-serine overdose during early embryonic development. Here, we used zebrafish as a model to test toxicity and teratogenicity, since they have transparent eggs, making the organogenesis of zebrafish embryos easier to be observed. After D-serine injection (100–1000 ppm), the most evident defective phenotypes were bent trunk phenotypes, including malformed somite boundary, twisted body axis and shorter body length. As the injection dosages increased, the rates of embryos with bent trunk phenotypes decreased (0% for 0 ppm, n=573; 59.9–84.3% for 100–1000 ppm of D-serine, n=383–451). In addition, D-serine-injected embryos exhibited significantly reduced the frequencies of spontaneous in-chorion contraction (21.7 for 0 ppm vs. 18.3–0.9 for 100–1000 ppm D-serine, n=30) in comparison with mock-treated controls (0 ppm). Subtle changes are easily observed by staining with specific monoclonal antibodies F59, Znp1, Zn5 and α-bungarotoxin to detect morphological changes in muscle fibers, primary motor axons, secondary motor axon projections and neuromuscular junctions, respectively. Our data show that overdose of D-serine leads to misalignment of muscle fibers and motor neuron defects, especially secondary motor neuron axonal growth defects.
Busulfan is an antineoplastic bifunctional alkylating agent. We previously reported the busulfan-induced systemic histopathological changes in fetal rats and the sequence of brain lesions in fetal and infant rats. In the present study, in order to clarify the nature and sequence of busulfan-induced systemic histopathological changes in infant rats, 6-day-old male infant rats were subcutaneously administered 20 mg/kg of busulfan and histopathologically examined at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after treatment (DAT). As a result, histopathological changes characterized by pyknosis of component cells were observed in the heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, testes, epididymides, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, dorsal skin and femur as well as in the brain and eyes (data not shown in this paper). Such pyknosis transiently appeared until 7 DAT with prominence at 2 and/or 4 DAT in each tissue, except for the thymus, in which pyknosis peaked at 1 DAT. Most of the pyknotic nuclei were immunohistochemically positive for cleaved caspase-3, indicating that pyknotic cells were apoptotic. Different from the reports of fetal and adult rats, apoptosis was also found in cardiomyocytes and osteoblasts in infant rats.
AZD3783, a cationic amphiphilic drug and a potent inhibitor of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptor, was explored as a potential treatment for depression. To support clinical trials, repeat dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs were conducted. Here we report toxicity findings in dogs after dosing from 1 to 3 months. In the 1-month study, there were minimal neuronal vacuolation in the brain, a marked increase in liver enzymes accompanied by hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis and phospholipidosis (PLD), and PLD/cholecystitis in the gallbladder of animals dosed at 47 mg/kg/day. In the 3-month study, neurotoxicity resulted in euthanasia of one animal dosed at 30 mg/kg/day after 86 days. Extensive pathologic changes were seen in all animals in retina epithelium (inclusion bodies), brain (neuronal vacuolation, degeneration, or necrosis and nerve fiber degeneration), spinal ganglia (vacuolation, degeneration, or necrosis), as well as sciatic and optic nerves (degeneration). Pigment-laden macrophages were observed in the lung, kidney, liver, gallbladder, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and lymphoid tissues. Also seen were vitrel and retinal hemorrhage in the eyes. A brain concentration and pathology study showed that the concentration of AZD3783 in the brain was approximately 4 times higher than in the plasma after 4 weeks of dosing, however, they were similar in all regions examined, and did not correlate with areas with pathologic findings. Our findings with AZD3783 in dogs have not been reported previously with other CNS compounds that effect through serotonergic pharmacology.
We have established a transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP) model that features uniform adenocarcinoma development in prostatic lobes at high incidence within a short experimental period. However, no invasive carcinomas with reactive stroma characteristics similar to those in man were observed. We therefore have focused on a new model for invasive carcinoma of the prostate using TRAP rats. In experiment 1, male TRAP rats in groups 1 and 2 were treated with orchiectomy at day 0 of the experiment. Rats in groups 1–3 underwent testosterone propionate (TP) implantation from weeks 1 to 4 and from weeks 6 to 16. Rats in groups 1 and 3 were given 3,2’-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB) after TP implantation. The rats of group 4 served as controls. In experiment 2, the rats were divided into three groups, none of which received DMAB or orchiectomy, treated with TP continuously or with the treatment withdrawn once or twice. In experiment 1, invasive adenocarcinomas with abundant collagenous stroma were found in the dorsolateral and anterior prostate, some of which showed perineural space invasion at week 16. The number of invasive carcinoma foci was most frequent in group 3. In experiment 2, invasive adenocarcinoma development in the lateral prostates was correlated with the number of TP administration/withdrawal cycles. In conclusion, our newly established rat model for invasive adenocarcinoma of the prostate could serve as a useful preclinical model for evaluating the in vivo efficacy of preventive and therapeutic agents targeting of the tumor microenvironment.
Studies that investigate the underlying mechanisms of disease and treatment options typically require the use of a suitable animal model. Few suitable animal models exist for left atrial thrombosis. Here, we demonstrated that the Spontaneously-Running-Tokushima-Shikoku (SPORTS) rat — a Wistar strain known for its running ability—is predisposed to the development of thrombi in the left atrium. We investigated the incidence of left atrial thrombosis in male (n = 16) and female (n = 17) SPORTS rats and observed organized atrial thrombosis in 57% and 38% of males and female rats, respectively. In the male rats, systolic blood pressures and heart rates were significantly higher in SPORTS rats than in control Wistar rats. We could not find any evidence of arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, during electrocardiographic examination of SPORTS rats. We believe that the SPORTS rat could serve as a new research model for left atrial thrombosis; further, it may be suitable for research investigating the development of new antithrombotic approaches for the control of atrial thrombosis or familial thrombophilia in humans.
Nivalenol (NIV) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminates agricultural commodities. Dietary administration of NIV to adult mice affects the renal glomeruli, but data about NIV toxicity in human infants are limited. To evaluate the effects of NIV on infant kidneys, 3-week-old male ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) and ICR mice were administered 0, 4, 8 or 16 ppm NIV in diet for 4 weeks, and their renal status was compared with age-matched or adult ICR mice. In ICGN mice, the number of glomeruli showing mesangial expansion and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive mesangial cells was higher with 16 ppm NIV compared with controls. No other significant differences were observed in ICGN mice. In infant ICR mice, the IgA serum concentrations were significantly elevated without glomerular morphological changes in the 16 ppm NIV group. There was no difference in NIV sensitivity in the kidneys of infant ICGN and ICR mice. These data suggest that the kidneys in infant mice are not sensitive to nivalenol under the present conditions.
The effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on mouse skin two-stage chemical carcinogenesis were examined. Six-week-old inbred CD-1 female mice were divided into the following five groups: group 1, normoxia and application of 25 nmol 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 8.5 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (n=19); group 2, HBO and DMBA/TPA (n=21); group 3, HBO and DMBA/acetone (n=3); group 4, normoxia and acetone (n=3); and group 5, non-treatment group (n=5). HBO was started at the same time as DMBA. Mice were euthanized at 23 weeks after the start of the experiment. Mice in group 2 showed the occurrence of tumors at 8 weeks after the beginning of the experiment, while the occurrence of tumors in mice in group 1 was observed beginning at 9 weeks. There was a difference in occurrence among low-grade papillomas, high-grade papillomas and SCCs in both groups 1 and 2 by the χ2-test at end of the experiment (p<0.05). The Ki-67 labeling indices of tumors revealed that the percentages of positive cells in low-grade papillomas in groups 1 and 2 were 15.27 ± 2.54% and 29.67 ± 2.82%, respectively (p<0.01). The results suggested that the tumors in group 2, which was treated with HBO, were more progressive than those in group 1, which was not treated with HBO. In this study, HBO accelerated tumor cell proliferation and advanced tumor progression in skin carcinogenesis by DMBA/TPA.
The aim of this work was to investigate the potential interactions between intestinal absorbance and ricin poisoning. The Caco-2 cell monolayer and everted intestinal sac (VEIS) models were used. The distribution of ricin in CD-1 mice intoxicated with 0.1 mg/kg of ricin intragastrically was determined by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that ricin could not transfer across the healthy Caco-2 cell monolayer within three hours after poisoning. However, it could pass through the everted rat intestinal wall after 0.5 h of incubation. The toxin in the liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys of mice could be detected as early as 1 h after intoxication. The pathological results were in accordance with the cytotoxicities of ricin in Caco-2, HepG 2, H1299 and MDCK cells, indicating that though no significant symptom in mice could be observed within 3 h after ricin intoxication, important tissues, especially the kidneys, were being injured by the toxin and that the injuries were progressing.
A 3 year old intact male pygmy goat developed progressive weakness and eventual recumbancy over the course of 1 week, while maintaining its ability to eat and drink. The animal died and at necropsy, the parietal pleural surfaces and the pericardial surface were noted to be covered with firm, white, variably sized nodules that often formed linear arrays or coalesced into larger clumped aggregates. The visceral pleural surfaces of the ventral lung lobes were also covered with similar nodules. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the submitted tissues revealed a diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with extensive seeding throughout the thoracic cavity.
The development of ectopic gastric, intestinal, or pancreatic tissue in the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare in rats, although it is fairly common in humans. In this report, we describe an unusual case in which a mixture of different types of ectopic tissue was found in the forestomach of a rat. A solitary white nodular/polypoid structure, which measured 5 mm in size, was detected on the luminal surface of the greater curvature of the forestomach in an 8-week-old female Crl:CD(SD) rat. A histological examination revealed that the lesion contained ectopic glandular gastric tissue, including gastric surface mucous cells, parietal cells, and pyloric gland cells, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the lesion also contained villin-positive columnar intestinal absorptive cells and chymotrypsin-positive pancreatic exocrine tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to detect a mixture of ectopic glandular gastric, intestinal, and exocrine pancreatic tissue in a rat.
This report describes a spontaneous nephroblastoma with lung metastasis in a 10-week-old male Crl:CD(SD) rat. Macroscopically, a white mass in the kidney and two white masses in the lung were observed. Histopathologically, the renal mass was located in the cortex of a kidney, and it caused pressure on the surrounding renal parenchyma. Three components could be distinguished in the tumor: blastemal, epithelial (primitive glomerular/tubular structures) and mesenchymal (neoplastic connective tissues) elements. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for Wilms tumor 1 protein (WT1) and vimentin. Metastasis was found in the lung. Thus, the case was diagnosed as a nephroblastoma with lung metastasis.
Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the common feature of chronic renal failure, regardless of its etiology. Myofibroblasts play important roles in progression of the fibrosis and are characterized by expressions of various cytoskeletons such as vimentin, desmin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). To pursue the characteristics of the cells, we immunohistochemically investigated the relationship between calponin (a marker of terminal smooth muscles) expression and myofibroblasts in cisplatin-induced rat renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Calponin-expressing interstitial cells increased with fibrosis and reacted simultaneously to vimentin or α-SMA (a marker of well-differentiated myofibroblasts) but not desmin or Thy-1 (a marker of myofibroblasts at the early stage). The present study shows that calponin may be expressed transiently in relatively well-developed myofibroblasts in rat renal fibrosis. Calponin could become a marker for myofibroblast development in chronic renal toxicity in rats.