Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of DPAA when administered to mice in their drinking water for 52 weeks. DPAA was administered to mice at concentrations of 0, 6.25, 12.5, and 25 ppm in their drinking water for 52 weeks. There were no significant differences in final body weights between the control groups and the DPAA treatment groups in male or female mice. Relative liver weights were significantly increased in males treated with 25 ppm DPAA, and absolute liver weights were significantly decreased in female mice treated with 25 ppm DPAA. In female mice, cholangitis and simple bile duct hyperplasia were observed in the 12.5 and 25 ppm DPAA groups, and focal necrosis of hepatocytes was observed in the 25 ppm DPAA group. Proteomic analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified 18 proteins related to hepatotoxicity that were overexpressed in the female 25 ppm group. The phase I metabolic enzyme CYP2E1 was one of these overexpressed proteins. Immunostaining confirmed high expression of CYP2E1 in the livers of females in the 25 ppm group. These results suggest that DPAA is toxic to the intrahepatic bile duct epithelium and hepatocytes in female mice and that CYP2E1 might be involved in DPAA-associated toxicity. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels of DPAA were 12.5 ppm (1.6 mg/kg bw/day) for males and 6.25 ppm (1.1 mg/kg bw/day) for females under the conditions of this study.
Many approaches have been taken to identify new biomarkers of pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC). Since animal models can be sampled under controlled conditions, better standardization is possible compared with heterogeneous human studies. Transgenic rats with conditional activation of oncogenic RAS in pancreatic tissue develop PDC that closely resembles the biological and histopathological features of human PDC. Using this model, we evaluated the usefulness of leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG-1) as a serum marker. In this study, we found that LRG-1 was overexpressed in rat PDC compared with normal pancreas tissue of the control rats. Serum levels of LRG-1 were also significantly higher in rats bearing PDC than in controls. Importantly, chronic pancreatitis in male Wistar Bonn/Kobori rats, which is a widely accepted as a model of chronic pancreatitis, did not cause serum levels of LRG-1 to become elevated. These results strongly support serum LRG-1 as a candidate biomarker for noninvasive diagnosis of PDC. Our models of pancreas cancer provide a useful strategy for evaluation of candidate markers applicable to human cancer.
When conducting histopathological evaluation of lymphoid tissues, it is necessary to know the variability and strain differences in histological features of different sites of lymphoid tissues. To investigate in detail the variability of lymphoid tissues and strain differences of control rats as well as those of immune reactivity and sensitivity to immunosuppression, we performed a histopathological analysis of various lymphoid tissues in conjunction with the evaluation of immune function in a T cell-dependent antibody response (TDAR) assay with cyclophosphamide (CP) in Sprague Dawley (SD) and F344 rats. Six-week-old male SD and F344 rats were orally treated with CP at 0 (control) or 4 mg/kg/day for 28 days; keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was introduced intravenously on Days 14 and 23, and the serum concentrations of anti-KLH antibodies were measured. HE staining and immunohistochemistry for T-cell (CD3) and B-cell (CD45RA) markers were performed using tissues from the spleen, thymus, and various lymph nodes. In CP-treated rats of both strains, decreased concentrations of anti-KLH antibodies were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed decreased lymphocytes mainly in the B-cell area, and these changes induced by CP treatment were more prominent in the F344 rats than in the SD rats. The present study also demonstrated that some of the lymphoid tissues of the control F344 rats were less developed than those of the control SD rats, suggesting that F344 rats might be easily affected by CP-induced immunosuppression. This information concerning rat strain differences in lymphoid tissues will be useful in histopathological evaluation for drug-induced immunotoxicity.
To clarify the suppressive effects of astragalus injection (AI) on different stages of early hepatocarcinogenesis induced by weak promotion, SD rats initiated with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 200 mg/kg body weight and promoted with 0.5% piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in diet were repeatedly administered AI at 5 ml/kg body weight/day in the early postinitiation (EPI) or late postinitiation (LPI) period for 2 or 8 weeks, respectively. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-immunoreactive (+) foci tended to increase in the DEN+PBO group compared with the DEN-alone group. Among the PBO-promoted groups, number and area of GST-P+ foci did not visibly change in the DEN+PBO+AI-EPI group compared with the DEN+PBO group. In contrast, number and area of GST-P+ foci tended to decrease in the DEN+PBO+AI-LPI group compared with the DEN+PBO group. Number of Ki67+ cells was increased in the DEN+PBO group compared with the DEN-alone group and was decreased in both AI-administered groups compared with the DEN+PBO group. Gene expression analysis revealed that the DEN+PBO+AI-LPI group showed increased transcript levels of Ccne1, Cdkn1b, Rb1, Bax, Bcl2, Casp3, and Casp9 compared with the DEN+PBO group; however, the DEN+PBO+AI-EPI group did not show changes in the transcript levels of any genes examined compared with the DEN+PBO. These results suggest that AI administration during the LPI period caused weak suppression of hepatocarcinogenesis under weak promotion with a low PBO dose by the mechanism involving facilitation of cell cycle suppression causing G1/S arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the results suggest that AI administration during the EPI period has no effect on weakly promoted hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hypothyroidism during the developmental stage induces disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in later life, as well as inducing oxidative stress in the brain. The present study investigated the preventive effect of co-exposure to an antioxidant on disruptive neurogenesis induced by developmental exposure to anti-thyroid agent in rats. For this purpose, we used two antioxidants, α-glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) and α-lipoic acid (ALA). Mated female Sprague Dawley rats were either untreated (control) or treated with 12 ppm 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), an anti-thyroid agent, in drinking water from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21, the latter group being subjected to feeding basal diet alone or diet containing AGIQ at 5,000 ppm or ALA at 2,000 ppm during PTU exposure. On PND 21, PTU-exposed offspring showed reductions in a broad range of granule cell lineage subpopulations and a change in the number of GABAergic interneuron subpopulations. Co-exposure of AGIQ or ALA with PTU altered the transcript levels of many genes across multiple functions, suggestive of enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical results did not support these changes. PTU exposure and co-exposure of AGIQ or ALA with PTU did not alter the hippocampal lipid peroxidation level. The obtained results suggest a possibility that thyroid hormone depletion itself primarily disrupts neurogenesis and that oxidative stress may not be involved in the disruption during development. Transcript expression changes of many genes caused by antioxidants may be the result of neuroprotective actions of antioxidants rather than their antioxidant activity. However, no preventive effect on neurogenesis suggested impairment of protein synthesis via an effect on mRNA translation due to hypothyroidism.
An extraskeletal osteosarcoma was detected in the auricle of a 110-week-old female Wistar Hannover rat. Grossly, the tumor, measuring 15 mm in size, was observed in the subcutis as a solid and hard mass. Histologically, the majority of the mass comprised mature, compact bone. It was surrounded by neoplastic cells showing a variety of histologies, such as sarcoma, not otherwise specified, and myxosarcoma away from the bone-forming region. However, these different histological regions were considered to be components of a single bone tumor, based on the common expression of osterix and a similar mixture of constituent cells in each region. The tumor was diagnosed as an extraskeletal osteosarcoma because of the presence of infiltrative growth and abnormal mitosis and its development in the auricle without attachment to the skeleton. The present case is a rare histological type of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma with independent and different histological elements in rats.
We encountered hematolymphoid neoplastic lesions in the form of many nodules in the spleen and liver in a 110-week-old male Wistar Hannover rat (Crl:WI (Han)). The lesions contained atypical proliferative cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages. The proliferative cells comprised various atypical cell types with or without cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules. The granules were positively stained using periodic acid-Schiff and elastase stains, were bluish purple using phosphotungstic acid and hematoxylin, and showed no metachromasia using toluidine blue. In immunohistochemical staining, the proliferative cells with or without granules were positive for granzyme B, rat mast cell protease II, and Ki67. Electron microscopic examination revealed that single to multiple high-density granules of variable size were covered by a membrane. These findings led to a diagnosis of globule leukocyte tumor. The accompaniment of this tumor by inflammatory cells is likely evoked by mast cell-like active mediators contained in the granules of the globule leukocytes.
Patients with dominantly inherited Li-Fraumeni syndrome have a loss-of-function mutation in TP53 and develop diverse mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms at multiple sites. Trp53+/− female mice with the BALB/c background provide unique characteristics for the study of breast cancer in Li-Fraumeni syndrome; however, we previously found that female C3H-Trp53+/− mice did not spontaneously develop mammary tumors. Therefore, we obtained F1 and N2-N4 female mice by backcrossing the BALB/c strain and examined the incidence of mammary and other tumors in lifetime studies. Malignant lymphomas, osteosarcomas, and uterine adenocarcinomas spontaneously developed in approximately 20% or more of Trp53+/− mice with the C3H background. In contrast, the incidence of uterine adenocarcinomas showed a tendency to decrease, while that of mammary adenocarcinomas gradually increased in mice with the BALB/c strain backcross. Wild-type BALB/c female mice are predisposed to a wide spectrum of neoplasms, including mammary tumors, partly due to genetic factors, whereas uterine tumors are uncommon not only in BALB/c mice but also C3H mice. Thus, genetic factors appear to contribute to a strain-specific predisposition to malignant neoplasms in Trp53+/− mice, and further studies are needed to clarify the detailed mechanisms.
Hexyl acetate (CAS No. 142-92-7) is a naturally occurring ester compound that has a fruity odor. Despite its frequent use as a nature-identical flavoring agent, there are limited repeated dose toxicity data for hexyl acetate. Here we performed a 13-week subchronic toxicity study of hexyl acetate in male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats under GLP regulations. Hexyl acetate was given orally by gavage at doses of 0, 100, 300, or 1,000 mg/kg/day using corn oil as the vehicle. No significant toxicological changes in general condition, body weights, food intake, ophthalmology, hematology, organ weights, and histopathological findings were observed in any groups. Urinalysis revealed occult blood in two male animals treated with 1,000 mg/kg/day hexyl acetate, and one showed red blood cells in the urine sediment. Furthermore, blood biochemistry showed a significant increase in inorganic phosphorus levels in males treated with 1,000 mg/kg/day hexyl acetate. These results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of hexyl acetate was 300 mg/kg/day for males and more than 1,000 mg/kg/day for females.