Although Hatano high-avoidance and low-avoidance rats (HAA and LAA, respectively) have been selectively bred for good versus poor avoidance learning, HAA rats are known to be more reactive to stress than LAA rats. In this study, HAA and LAA female rats were compared during reproductive aging by observing estrous cycles from 8 to 11 months of age. Furthermore, these rats were allowed to live out their natural lifespans, that is, until 24 months of age, in order to compare their survival and to clarify the relationship between reproductive aging and tumor development. At eight months of age, 2 of 35 HAA rats and 20 of 35 LAA rats had abnormal estrous cycles. The median lifespan of the HAA rats (673 days) was shorter than that of the LAA rats (733 days). The incidence of pituitary neoplasia was higher in the HAA rats than in the LAA rats. These results suggest that HAA female rats (i.e., stress-reactive rats) have a shorter lifespan than LAA female rats (i.e., stress-nonreactive rats) and develop pituitary neoplasia, which was one of the causal factors in their accelerated mortality. However, the onset of an age-matched abnormal cycle did not correspond with their lifespan.
The incidence of mesenteric lymph node vascular tumors can vary in rats, and appropriate assessment of potential risk of tumorigenicity is needed when the incidence is higher in treated groups than in a control group. In a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study of luseogliflozin, a selective sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, there was a slight but statistically significant increase in the total number of hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas in the mesenteric lymph nodes in males at a high-dose. As part of the risk assessment for luseogliflozin, its effect on the vascular proliferation potential in the mesenteric lymph nodes was examined in a rat carcinogenicity study by performing an image analysis using specimens with double immunohistochemical staining for PCNA and CD34 in control and high-dose males. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for VEGF was performed to detect enhanced angiogenesis. In the high-dose males that did not have a hemangioma/hemangiosarcoma, neither an increased number of PCNA/CD34-positive cells nor changes in the expression pattern of VEGF was observed. On the other hand, in the high-dose males that had a hemangioma/hemangiosarcoma, the number of PCNA-positive cells was increased in the tumor areas, and the number in the hemangioma/hemangiosarcoma was approximately one-half of that in the hemangiosarcoma in the control male. In conclusion, no potential change leading to vascular proliferation/tumors was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes of high-dose males receiving luseogliflozin.
Although several animal models have been developed to study human pulmonary fibrosis, lack of a perfect model has raised the need for various animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the pulmonary effect of polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate instillation into the lungs of mice to determine the potential of these mice as a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis. Intratracheal instillation of polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate induced severe lung inflammation manifested by the infiltration of mononuclear cells and neutrophils and increased production of IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2 and CXCL1. The lung inflammation gradually increased until 28 days after polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate exposure, and increases of collagen deposition and TGF-β production, which are indicators of pulmonary fibrosis, were seen. Our study showed that intratracheal instillation of polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate induces pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice.
Keishibukuryogan is a traditional Japanese medicine widely administered to patients with menopausal symptoms. Because humans use it on a long-term basis, we believed that a carcinogenicity study was warranted. We orally administered keishibukuryogan (TJ-25) extract powder to 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats [Crl:CD(SD)], which were divided into four dosage groups-0 (water for injection), 100, 500 and 2,500 mg/kg/day for 24 months. We found that TJ-25 did not affect the survival rate of either sex. Furthermore, it did not affect the clinical condition of the rats, number of superficial tumors found by palpation, body weight, food consumption, hematology, or gross pathological findings. The severity of degeneration of muscle fiber in the femoral skeletal muscle increased slightly in males and females in the 2,500 mg/kg/day group, but TJ-25 did not increase the number of tumors found on histopathological examination. In our study, oral administration of TJ-25 extract powder in rats for 24 months was not associated with an increased incidence of tumors.
A spontaneous tumor was observed in the maxillary gland of a 12-week-old male BALB/c F1 hybrid mouse. Histopathologically, the tumor invaded both the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus, and ethmoturbinates were destroyed. The majority of the tumor cells had oval nuclei with eosinophilic and vacuolar cytoplasm. Numerous mitotic figures and necrotic foci were also observed throughout the tumor. Immunohistochemically, almost all of the tumor cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (WSS) and alpha-smooth muscle actin. However, tumor cells were negative for cytokeratin (CAM 5.2), suggesting that these tumor cells originated from myoepithelial cells. The present tumor was diagnosed as a malignant myoepithelioma of the maxillary gland. This is the first report describing spontaneous malignant myoepithelioma in the maxillary gland of a young adult BALB/c F1 hybrid mouse.
Wavy medakas are medakas that exhibit spinal curvature characterized by dorsoventrally curved vertebrae. We found a spontaneous wavy medaka in our experimental stock and subjected it to a histopathological examination. Macroscopically, the wavy medaka’s spine formed an M shape, and its vertebrae displayed a dorsoventral curvature that started at the third vertebral bone. Microscopically, the vertebral cavities were filled with fibrous tissue, which was similar to that seen in the central parts of the intervertebral discs of a normal medaka. The vertebral joints were composed of vacuolated notochord cells without intervertebral disc formation. These changes were also observed in the caudal region, which exhibited less curvature. In the normal medaka, the intervertebral discs form via the regression of the notochord that plays a key role in the development of vertebrae and disc formation. We concluded that notochordal subinvolution had induced intervertebral disc dysplasia, leading to lordokyphosis, in the wavy medaka.
A small mass with an ulcer was found in the skin of the dorsal cervix of a 7-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rat. Histologically, the central region of the tumor showed a high cellular density with oval-shaped tumor cells arranged in an alveolar pattern and thin collagen fiber bundles. The peripheral region of the tumor had a low cellular density with short spindle- or polygonal-shaped tumor cells surrounded by abundant collagen fiber bundles. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and a portion of the short spindle- or polygonal-shaped cells located in the peripheral region of the tumor were positive for S100A4. However, the tumor cells were negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, S100, chromogranin A, neurofilament, CD68, Iba-1, cytokeratin 20, von Willebrand factor, melanosome, and anti-melanoma. Electron microscopically, the tumor cells had an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and a few intracellular collagen fibrils, showing fibroblastic features. Considering the lack of diagnostic differentiation, the tumor was diagnosed as an undifferentiated malignant mesenchymal tumor and classified as a soft tissue sarcoma with differentiation into fibroblasts in a portion of the tumor cells.
The human renin-angiotensinogen double transgenic rat (dTGR) is a model of hypertension. The aim of this short report was to describe the histopathological characteristics of the renal changes in this rat strain in detail. Seven to nine-week-old male dTGRs were euthanized, and their kidneys were histopathologically examined. At the time of sacrifice, the average systolic blood pressure of the dTGRs was 258 mmHg, while that of age-matched, normal Sprague-Dawley rats was 135 mmHg. In the kidney, histopathological changes were observed mainly in blood vessels, tubules and glomeruli. In blood vessels, changes including medial hypertrophy, intimal thickening, hyaline change and/or fibrinoid necrosis were observed in arteries and arterioles. In tubules, changes including tubular basophilia were observed radially, mainly around interlobular arteries with lesions. In glomeruli, changes including hyaline droplet accumulation in podocytes, which was accompanied by increased expression of desmin, were observed. These changes were similar to those reported in other hypertension models, such as the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We hope that this short report will be helpful in histopathological examination of renal changes in this or other hypertension models.
The aim of this study was to examine the possible involvement of smooth muscle cell remodeling and the induction of MFG-E8 (milk fat globule protein epidermal growth factor-VIII) in vascular pathophysiology during cocaine administration in cultured cells and rats. Cocaine exerts bifurcate effects on vascular cells; it stimulates vasoconstriction through enhancement of catecholamine release at low doses, while it suppresses cardiovascular functions through inhibition of ion channels at high doses. Short-term exposure to a high concentration of cocaine (3 mM, 24 hr) resulted in cell death of A7r5 rat aorta-derived smooth muscle cells. On the other hand, long-term exposure of the same cells to a low concentration (0.3 mM, ~7 days) resulted in a transient increase in MFG-E8 expression followed by an increased tendency toward cyclin D1, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and CDK4 (cyclin-dependent protein kinase-4) expression. Interestingly, autophagy was not induced, but rather was impaired, in cocaine-treated cells. Increased expressions of MFG-E8, PCNA, and CDK4 were also observed in the aortic vascular cells of rats administered cocaine (50 mg/kg, 2 days, i.v.), confirming that cocaine induced MFG-E8 expression in vivo. Taken together, the results show that MFG-E8 is induced in vascular cells exposed to cocaine, and that this induction is likely to be involved in the vascular toxicity elicited by cocaine abuse.
Liposomes have been used as a vehicle for encapsulating chemicals or toxins in toxicological studies. We investigated the transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophages by applying a single intravenous injection at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight in 6-week-old male F344 rats. One day after injection, the numbers of hepatic macrophages reacting to CD163, CD68, Iba-1, MHC class II, Gal-3 and CD204 were significantly increased in liposome-treated rats. CD163+ Kupffer cells and CD68+ macrophages with increased phagocytic activity in hepatic lobules were most sensitive. The histological architecture of the liver was not changed following liposome injection; however, hepatocytes showed increased proliferating activity, demonstrable with proliferation marker immunostaining and by an increase in gene profiles related to the cell cycle. In the liposome-treated rats, interestingly, AST and ALT values were significantly decreased, and MCP-1, IL-1β and TGF-β1 mRNAs were significantly increased. Collectively, the present study found that hepatic macrophages activated by liposomes can influence liver homeostasis. This information would be useful for background studies on liposomes.