IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Volume E101.D , Issue 10
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Zhishuo ZHENG, Deyu QI, Naqin ZHOU, Xinyang WANG, Mincong YU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamentals of Information Systems
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2423-2435
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Job scheduling on many-core computers with tens or even hundreds of processing cores is one of the key technologies in High Performance Computing (HPC) systems. Despite many scheduling algorithms have been proposed, scheduling remains a challenge for executing highly effective jobs that are assigned in a single computing node with diverse scheduling objectives. On the other hand, the increasing scale and the need for rapid response to changing requirements are hard to meet with existing scheduling models in an HPC node. To address these issues, we propose a novel adaptive scheduling model that is applied to a single node with a many-core processor; this model solves the problems of scheduling efficiency and scalability through an adaptive optimistic control mechanism. This mechanism exposes information such that all the cores are provided with jobs and the tools necessary to take advantage of that information and thus compete for resources in an uncoordinated manner. At the same time, the mechanism is equipped with adaptive control, allowing it to adjust the number of running tools dynamically when frequent conflict happens. We justify this scheduling model and present the simulation results for synthetic and real-world HPC workloads, in which we compare our proposed model with two widely used scheduling models, i.e. multi-path monolithic and two-level scheduling. The proposed approach outperforms the other models in scheduling efficiency and scalability. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive optimistic control affords significant improvements for HPC workloads in the parallelism of the node-level scheduling model and performance.

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  • Yong WANG, Zhiqiu HUANG, Rongcun WANG, Qiao YU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Software Engineering
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2436-2446
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Spectrum-based fault localization (SFL) is a lightweight approach, which aims at helping debuggers to identity root causes of failures by measuring suspiciousness for each program component being a fault, and generate a hypothetical fault ranking list. Although SFL techniques have been shown to be effective, the fault component in a buggy program cannot always be ranked at the top due to its complex fault triggering models. However, it is extremely difficult to model the complex triggering models for all buggy programs. To solve this issue, we propose two simple fault triggering models (RIPRα and RIPRβ), and a refinement technique to improve fault absolute ranking based on the two fault triggering models, through ruling out some higher ranked components according to its fault triggering model. Intuitively, our approach is effective if a fault component was ranked within top k in the two fault ranking lists outputted by the two fault localization strategies. Experimental results show that our approach can significantly improve the fault absolute ranking in the three cases.

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  • Mohan LI, Jianzhong LI, Siyao CHENG, Yanbin SUN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Data Engineering, Web Information Systems
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2447-2457
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Currency is one of the important measurements of data quality. The main purpose of the study on data currency is to determine whether a given data item is up-to-date. Though there are already several works on determining data currency, all the proposed methods have limitations. Some works require timestamps of data items that are not always available, and others are based on certain currency rules that can only decide relevant currency and cannot express uncertain semantics. To overcome the limitations of the previous methods, this paper introduces a new approach for determining data currency based on uncertain currency rules. First, a class of uncertain currency rules is provided to infer the possible valid time for a given data item, and then based on the rules, data currency is formally defined. After that, a polynomial time algorithm for evaluating data currency is given based on the uncertain currency rules. Using real-life data sets, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are experimentally verified.

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  • Tao WANG, Hongchang CHEN, Chao QI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2458-2464
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Software-defined networking (SDN) has rapidly emerged as a promising new technology for future networks and gained considerable attention from both academia and industry. However, due to the separation between the control plane and the data plane, the SDN controller can easily become the target of denial-of service (DoS) attacks. To mitigate DoS attacks in OpenFlow networks, our solution, MinDoS, contains two key techniques/modules: the simplified DoS detection module and the priority manager. The proposed architecture sends requests into multiple buffer queues with different priorities and then schedules the processing of these flow requests to ensure better controller protection. The results show that MinDoS is effective and adds only minor overhead to the entire SDN/OpenFlow infrastructure.

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  • Qian LU, Haipeng QU, Yuan ZHUANG, Xi-Jun LIN, Yuzhan OUYANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2465-2473
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    With the development of wireless network technology and popularization of mobile devices, the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) has become an indispensable part of our daily life. Although the 802.11-based WLAN provides enormous convenience for users to access the Internet, it also gives rise to a number of security issues. One of the most severe threat encountered by Wi-Fi users is the evil twin attacks. The evil twin, a kind of rogue access points (RAPs), masquerades as a legitimate access point (AP) to lure users to connect it. Due to the characteristics of strong concealment, high confusion, great harmfulness and easy implementation, the evil twin has led to significant loss of sensitive information and become one of the most prominent security threats in recent years. In this paper, we propose a passive client-based detection solution that enables users to independently identify and locate evil twins without any assistance from a wireless network administrator. Because of the forwarding behavior of evil twins, proposed method compares 802.11 data frames sent by target APs to users to determine evil twin attacks. We implemented our detection technique in a Python tool named ET-spotter. Through implementation and evaluation in our study, our algorithm achieves 96% accuracy in distinguishing evil twins from legitimate APs.

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  • Takaki MATSUNE, Katsuhide FUJITA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2474-2484
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Recently, multi-issue closed negotiations have attracted attention in multi-agent systems. In particular, multi-time and multilateral negotiation strategies are important topics in multi-issue closed negotiations. In multi-issue closed negotiations, an automated negotiating agent needs to have strategies for estimating an opponent's utility function by learning the opponent's behaviors since the opponent's utility information is not open to others. However, it is difficult to estimate an opponent's utility function for the following reasons: (1) Training datasets for estimating opponents' utility functions cannot be obtained. (2) It is difficult to apply the learned model to different negotiation domains and opponents. In this paper, we propose a novel method of estimating the opponents' utility functions using boosting based on the least-squares method and nonlinear programming. Our proposed method weights each utility function estimated by several existing utility function estimation methods and outputs improved utility function by summing each weighted function. The existing methods using boosting are based on the frequency-based method, which counts the number of values offered, considering the time elapsed when they offered. Our experimental results demonstrate that the accuracy of estimating opponents' utility functions is significantly improved under various conditions compared with the existing utility function estimation methods without boosting.

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  • Hyun KWON, Yongchul KIM, Ki-Woong PARK, Hyunsoo YOON, Daeseon CHOI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2485-2500
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Deep neural networks (DNNs) are widely used in many applications such as image, voice, and pattern recognition. However, it has recently been shown that a DNN can be vulnerable to a small distortion in images that humans cannot distinguish. This type of attack is known as an adversarial example and is a significant threat to deep learning systems. The unknown-target-oriented generalized adversarial example that can deceive most DNN classifiers is even more threatening. We propose a generalized adversarial example attack method that can effectively attack unknown classifiers by using a hierarchical ensemble method. Our proposed scheme creates advanced ensemble adversarial examples to achieve reasonable attack success rates for unknown classifiers. Our experiment results show that the proposed method can achieve attack success rates for an unknown classifier of up to 9.25% and 18.94% higher on MNIST data and 4.1% and 13% higher on CIFAR10 data compared with the previous ensemble method and the conventional baseline method, respectively.

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  • Tsuyoshi HIGASHIGUCHI, Norimichi UKITA, Masayuki KANBARA, Norihiro HAG ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Pattern Recognition
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2501-2508
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper proposes a method for predicting individuality-preserving gait patterns. Physical rehabilitation can be performed using visual and/or physical instructions by physiotherapists or exoskeletal robots. However, a template-based rehabilitation may produce discomfort and pain in a patient because of deviations from the natural gait of each patient. Our work addresses this problem by predicting an individuality-preserving gait pattern for each patient. In this prediction, the transition of the gait patterns is modeled by associating the sequence of a 3D skeleton in gait with its continuous-value gait features (e.g., walking speed or step width). In the space of the prediction model, the arrangement of the gait patterns are optimized so that (1) similar gait patterns are close to each other and (2) the gait feature changes smoothly between neighboring gait patterns. This model allows to predict individuality-preserving gait patterns of each patient even if his/her various gait patterns are not available for prediction. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated quantitatively. with two datasets.

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  • Mayu OTANI, Atsushi NISHIDA, Yuta NAKASHIMA, Tomokazu SATO, Naokazu YO ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2509-2517
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Finding important regions is essential for applications, such as content-aware video compression and video retargeting to automatically crop a region in a video for small screens. Since people are one of main subjects when taking a video, some methods for finding important regions use a visual attention model based on face/pedestrian detection to incorporate the knowledge that people are important. However, such methods usually do not distinguish important people from passers-by and bystanders, which results in false positives. In this paper, we propose a deep neural network (DNN)-based method, which classifies a person into important or unimportant, given a video containing multiple people in a single frame and captured with a hand-held camera. Intuitively, important/unimportant labels are highly correlated given that corresponding people's spatial motions are similar. Based on this assumption, we propose to boost the performance of our important/unimportant classification by using conditional random fields (CRFs) built upon the DNN, which can be trained in an end-to-end manner. Our experimental results show that our method successfully classifies important people and the use of a DNN with CRFs improves the accuracy.

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  • Sang-Ho HWANG, Jong Wook KWAK
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Software System
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2518-2522
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this letter, we propose a static wear leveling technique, called Recency-based Wear Leveling (RbWL). The basic idea of RbWL is to execute static wear leveling at minimum levels, because the frequent migrations of cold data by static wear leveling cause significant overhead in a NAND flash memory system. RbWL adjusts the execution frequency according to a threshold value that reflects the lifetime difference of the hot/cold blocks and the total lifetime of the NAND flash memory system. The evaluation results show that RbWL improves the lifetime of NAND flash memory systems by 52%, and it also reduces the overhead of wear leveling from 8% to 42% and from 13% to 51%, in terms of the number of erase operations and the number of page migrations of valid pages, respectively, compared with other algorithms.

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  • Akito SUNOUCHI, Hirohisa AMAN, Minoru KAWAHARA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Software Engineering
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2523-2525
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Once a bug is reported, it is a major concern whether or not the bug is resolved (closed) soon. This paper examines seven metrics quantifying the amount of clues to the early close of reported bugs through a case study. The results show that one of the metrics, the similarity to already-closed bug reports, is strongly related to early-closed bugs.

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  • Rustamov FAYOZBEK, Minjun CHOI, Joobeom YUN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Data Engineering, Web Information Systems
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2526-2529
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Huge amounts of software appear nowadays. The more the number of software increases, the more increased software vulnerabilities are. Although some automatic methods have been proposed in order to detect and remove software vulnerabilities, they still require a lot of time so they have a limitation in the real world. To solve this problem, we propose BugHunter which automatically tests a binary file compiled with a C++ compiler. It searches for unsafe API calls and automatically executes to the program block that have an unsafe API call. Also, we showed that BugHunter is more efficient than angr through experiments. As a result, BugHunter is very helpful to find a software vulnerability in a short time.

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  • Makio ISHIHARA, Yukio ISHIHARA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Human-computer Interaction
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2530-2533
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper discusses VDT syndrome from the point of view of the viewing distance between a computer screen and user's eyes. This paper conducts a series of experiments to show an impact of the viewing distance on task performance. In the experiments, two different viewing distances of 50cm and 350cm with the same viewing angle of 30degrees are taken into consideration. The results show that the long viewing distance enables people to manipulate the mouse more slowly, more correctly and more precisely than the short.

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  • Zhendong ZHUANG, Yang XUE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Human-computer Interaction
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2534-2538
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The research on inertial sensor based human action detection and recognition (HADR) is a new area in machine learning. We propose a novel time sequence based interval convolutional neutral networks framework for HADR by combining interesting interval proposals generator and interval-based classifier. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of our method.

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  • Zongliang GAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2539-2542
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this letter, an effective low bit-rate image restoration method is proposed, in which image denoising and subspace regression learning are combined. The proposed framework has two parts: image main structure estimation by classical NLM denoising and texture component prediction by subspace joint regression learning. The local regression function are learned from denoised patch to original patch in each subspace, where the corresponding compression image patches are employed to generate anchoring points by the dictionary learning approach. Moreover, we extent Extreme Support Vector Regression (ESVR) as multi-variable nonlinear regression to get more robustness results. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed method achieves favorable performance compared with other leading methods.

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  • Ting ZHANG, Huihui BAI, Mengmeng ZHANG, Yao ZHAO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2543-2546
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Multiple description (MD) coding is an attractive framework for robust information transmission over non-prioritized and unpredictable networks. In this paper, a novel MD image coding scheme is proposed based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which aims to improve the reconstructed quality of side and central decoders. For this purpose initially, a given image is encoded into two independent descriptions by sub-sampling. Such a design can make the proposed method compatible with the existing image coding standards. At the decoder, in order to achieve high-quality of side and central image reconstruction, three CNNs, including two side decoder sub-networks and one central decoder sub-network, are adopted into an end-to-end reconstruction framework. Experimental results show the improvement achieved by the proposed scheme in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio values and subjective quality. The proposed method demonstrates better rate central and side distortion performance.

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  • Wei WANG, Weiguang LI, Zhaoming CHEN, Mingquan SHI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2547-2550
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In general, effective integrating the advantages of different trackers can achieve unified performance promotion. In this work, we study the integration of multiple correlation filter (CF) trackers; propose a novel but simple tracking integration method that combines different trackers in filter level. Due to the variety of their correlation filter and features, there is no comparability between different CF tracking results for tracking integration. To tackle this, we propose twofold CF to unify these various response maps so that the results of different tracking algorithms can be compared, so as to boost the tracking performance like ensemble learning. Experiment of two CF methods integration on the data sets OTB demonstrates that the proposed method is effective and promising.

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  • Eun-kyung KIM, Key-Sun CHOI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Natural Language Processing
    2018 Volume E101.D Issue 10 Pages 2551-2558
    Published: October 01, 2018
    Released: October 01, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper introduces a technique for automatically generating potential training data from sentences in which entity pairs are not apparently presented in a relation extraction. Most previous works on relation extraction by distant supervision ignored cases in which a relationship may be expressed via null-subjects or anaphora. However, natural language text basically has a network structure that is composed of several sentences. If they are closely related, this is not expressed explicitly in the text, which can make relation extraction difficult. This paper describes a new model that augments a paragraph with a “salient entity” that is determined without parsing. The entity can create additional tuple extraction environments as potential subjects in paragraphs. Including the salient entity as part of the sentential input may allow the proposed method to identify relationships that conventional methods cannot identify. This method also has promising potential applicability to languages for which advanced natural language processing tools are lacking.

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