IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Volume E94.D , Issue 1
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
IEICE/IEEE Joint Special Section on Autonomous Decentralized Systems Technologies and Their Application to Networked Systems
  • Yukikazu NAKAMOTO
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 1-2
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Alireza DIRAFZOON, Mohammad Bagher MENHAJ, Ahmad AFSHAR
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Community
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 3-10
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we study the decentralized coverage control problem for an environment using a group of autonomous mobile robots with nonholonomic kinematic and dynamic constraints. In comparison with standard coverage control procedures, we develop a combined controller for Voronoi-based coverage approach in which kinematic and dynamic constraints of the actual mobile sensing robots are incorporated into the controller design. Furthermore, a collision avoidance component is added in the kinematic controller in order to guarantee a collision free coverage of the area. The convergence of the network to the optimal sensing configuration is proven with a Lyapunov-type analysis. Numerical simulations are provided approving the effectiveness of the proposed method through several experimental scenarios.
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  • Titichaya THANAMITSOMBOON, Kotaro HAMA, Riyako SAKAMOTO, Xiaodong LU, ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Community
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 11-18
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The challenge in resource utilization under dynamic environment is how to utilize appropriate resources to the right users at the right time and the right location. In conventional system, centralized management system is applied but it tends to congest when user requests increase or resources rapidly move. Therefore, this paper proposes Autonomous Coordination Technology (ACT) through community organization for resource utilization. In ACT, a node which has surplus resources autonomously constructs community with a surplus-level based size and distributes resources to members which are deficient in resources. ACT consists of autonomous coordination within community and among communities. According to community organization, online property and flexibility can be satisfied. However, it is difficult to achieve service provision timeliness and resource allocation operatability in the mean time. Thus, ACT includes successive transportation method, and autonomous resource allocation which dynamic decision is made by a tradeoff between timeliness and operatability. As a result, the service assurance in terms of timeliness and operatability can be assured. The effectiveness of proposed technology is affirmed through the simulation of taxi dispatching application in terms of response time and standard deviation versus user rates.
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  • Eitaro KOHNO, Tomoyuki OHTA, Yoshiaki KAKUDA, Masaki AIDA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Assurance
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 19-26
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A Wireless Sensor Network has sensor nodes which have limited computational power and memory size. Due to the nature of the network, the data is vulnerable to attacks. Thus, maintaining confidentiality is an important issue. To compensate for this problem, there are many countermeasures which utilize common or public key cryptosystems that have been proposed. However, these methods have problems with establishing keys between the source and the destination nodes. When these two nodes try to establish new keys, they must exchange information several times. Also, the routes of the Wireless Sensor Networks can change frequently due to an unstable wireless connection and batteries running out on sensor nodes. These problems of security and failure become more serious as the number of nodes in the network increases. In this paper, we propose a new data distribution method to compensate for vulnerability and failure based on the Secret Sharing Scheme. In addition, we will confirm the effect of our method through experiments. Concerning security, we compare our method with the existing TinySec, which is the major security architecture of Wireless Sensor Networks.
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  • Carlos PEREZ-LEGUIZAMO, Kinji MORI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Scalability & Timeliness
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 27-34
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The turn of the century is witnessing radical changes in the way information services are spreading due to the progress of IT and the constantly increase in the number of users of the WWW. Therefore, the business market is changing its strategy for a modern online business environment. Autonomous Decentralized Database System (ADDS), based on autonomous coordinating subsystems, has been proposed as a system architecture in order to meet the innovative e-business requirements for consistency and high response among distributed database systems. Autonomy and decentralization of subsystems help achieving high response time in highly competitive situation and autonomous Mobile Agent based coordination has been proposed to achieve flexibility in a highly dynamic environment. In this paper, it is analyzed the case in which the system size increases; and a multi agent coordination, the same number of mobile agents and sites coexist in the system, is proposed for achieving the timeliness property. The response time in the system is conformed by those transactions that require coordination and those that can be satisfied immediately. In accordance, the distribution of the data in the system for coordination is a medullar issue for the improvement of the response time. A trade-off exits between these two kind of transactions depending on the coordination of the Mobile Agents, the capacity of allocating data among the sites, and as well as the distribution of the data and user requests in the system. In this sense, since the system requires high response time, a data allocation technology in which each mobile agent autonomously determine its own capacity for adjusting data among the sites is proposed. Thus, the system will adapt itself to the dynamic environment. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture and technologies are evaluated by simulation.
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Regular Section
  • Anish Man Singh SHRESTHA, Asahi TAKAOKA, Satoshi TAYU, Shuichi UENO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamentals of Information Systems
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 35-41
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The logic mapping problem and the problem of finding a largest sub-crossbar with no defects in a nano-crossbar with nonprogrammable-crosspoint defects and disconnected-wire defects are known to be NP-hard. This paper shows that for nano-crossbars with only disconnected-wire defects, the former remains NP-hard, while the latter can be solved in polynomial time.
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  • Sherihan ABU ELENIN, Masato KITAKAMI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 42-50
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently, Trust has been recognized as an important factor for Grid computing security. In this paper, we propose a trust model in Grid system. It consists of Application Domain (AD), Client Domain (CD), Resource Domain (RD), and Trust Manager (TM). TM controls the relationship between RD and CD depending on the trust level value of each client and classification of each resource. Performance criteria are makespan and utilization. We evaluated our trust model in six scheduling algorithms in nine scenarios. The simulation results show that the proposed trust model improves the performance in all scheduling algorithms.
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  • Zhao LEI, Hui XU, Daisuke IKEBUCHI, Tetsuya SUNATA, Mitaro NAMIKI, Hid ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 51-59
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a leakage efficient data TLB (Translation Look-aside Buffer) design for embedded processors. Due to the data locality in programs, data TLB references tend to hit only a small number of pages during short execution intervals. After dividing the overall execution time into smaller time slices, a leakage reduction mechanism is proposed to detect TLB entries which actually serve for virtual-to-physical address translations within each time slice. Thus, with the integration of the dual voltage supply technique, those TLB entries which are not used for address translations can be put into low leakage mode (with lower voltage supply) to save power. Evaluation results with eight MiBench programs show that the proposed design can reduce the leakage power of a data TLB by 37% on average, with performance degradation less than 0.01%.
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  • Yong-Ju LEE, Hag-Young KIM, Cheol-Hoon LEE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 60-68
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud computing is emerging as a viable alternative to the acquisition and management of physical resources. The new main feature of IaaS cloud computing is the virtual machine (VM) technology which improves the flexibility of resource management. VMs use virtual machine images that are preconfigured and ready to run. Typically, VM image management uses local file copy and distribution via a network file system (NFS). This potentially means that a more efficient method can be used for VM image distribution. For efficient VM image management, we have designed and implemented a BitTorrent-based network block device (namely, BitNBD) for provisioning VM images in IaaS clouds. The BitNBD mainly provides a ‘split read/write mechanism’ to deal with concurrent VM instances where the same pieces of a VM are shared. With respect to the legacy BitTorrent protocol, the BitNBD enhances the piece picker policy and energy-saving mode. It is very effective in minimizing VM startup delays and providing a hibernating capability.
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  • Ryota SHIOYA, Daewung KIM, Kazuo HORIO, Masahiro GOSHIMA, Shuichi SAKA ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 69-78
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A security-tagged architecture is one that applies tags on data to detect attack or information leakage, tracking data flow. The previous studies using security-tagged architecture mostly focused on how to utilize tags, not how the tags are implemented. A naive implementation of tags simply adds a tag field to every byte of the cache and the memory. Such a technique, however, results in a huge hardware overhead. This paper proposes a low-overhead tagged architecture. We achieve our goal by exploiting some properties of tag, the non-uniformity and the locality of reference. Our design includes the use of uniquely designed multi-level table and various cache-like structures, all contributing to exploit these properties. Under simulation, our method was able to limit the memory overhead to 0.685%, where a naive implementation suffered 12.5% overhead.
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  • Heung seok CHAE, Joon-Sang LEE, Jung Ho BAE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Software System
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 79-90
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Behavioral compatibility between subtypes and supertypes in object-oriented systems is a very important issue to enable the substitution between object types since it supports the extension and evolution of an object oriented system. In other words, the subtype must be guaranteed that it can provide all behaviors(operations) of the supertype for replacing the supertype with the subtype. Invocation consistency checking is one of techniques to verify behavioral compatibility between two object types. The technique confirms weather an object type can accept all sequence of operations of the other object type or not. The classical methods rule checks behavioral compatibility by verifying invocation consistency of two object types. The rule argues that subtypes meet behavioral compatibility with supertypes if the subtypes' preconditions of inherited operations are weakened and postconditions are strengthened. Noting that the classical methods rule is not sufficient for checking behavioral compatibility between objects, we propose an extended methods rule on the basis of the classical methods rule. Based on the proposed extended methods rule, we have implemented a tool, BCCT, to automatically check behavioral compatibility between two objects.
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  • Asaad AHMED, Keiichi YASUMOTO, Minoru ITO, Naoki SHIBATA, Tomoya KITAN ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 91-103
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) offer quick and easy network deployment in situations where it is not possible otherwise and they can be used to provide mobile users with a temporary infrastructure to use services in the absence of fixed infrastructure. Nodes in MANETs are free to move and organize themselves in an arbitrary fashion. The challenging task in such dynamic environments is how to improve the service availability. Replicating a service at some nodes distributed across the network is an effective strategy. However, service replication can considerably impact the system energy consumption. Since mobile devices have limited battery resources, a dynamic and efficient service replication is necessary to support such environments. In this paper, we propose a distributed service replication scheme for achieving high service availability with reasonable energy consumption for MANETs. The proposed method called HDAR (Highly Distributed Adaptive Service Replication) divides the whole network into disjoint zones of at most 2-hops in diameter and builds a dynamic replication mechanism which selects new replica zones depending on their service demand and the tradeoff between the communication and replication energy consumption costs. Through simulations, we confirmed that our approach can achieve higher service availability with reasonable energy consumption than existing methods.
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  • Marie Engelene J. OBIEN, Satoshi OHTAKE, Hideo FUJIWARA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 104-113
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Due to the difficulty of test pattern generation for sequential circuits, several design-for-testability (DFT) approaches have been proposed. An improvement to these current approaches is needed to cater to the requirements of today's more complicated chips. This paper introduces a new DFT method applicable to high-level description of circuits, which optimally utilizes existing functional elements and paths for test. This technique, called F-scan, effectively reduces the hardware overhead due to test without compromising fault coverage. Test application time is also kept at the minimum. The comparison of F-scan with the performance of gate-level full scan design is shown through the experimental results.
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  • Junbin ZHANG, Yong QI, Di HOU, Ming LI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 114-126
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Context-aware applications are a key aspect of pervasive computing. The core issue of context-aware application development is how to make the application behave suitably according to the changing context without coupling such context dependencies in the program. Several programming paradigms and languages have been proposed to facilitate the development, but they are either lack of sufficient flexibility or somewhat complex for programming and deploying. A reference programming model is proposed in this paper to make up inadequacy of those approaches. In the model, virtual tables constructed by system and maintained by space manager connect knowledge of both developer and space manager while separating dependency between context and application logic from base program. Hierarchy and architecture of the model are presented, and implementation suggestions are also discussed. Validation and evaluation show that the programming model is lightweight and easy to be implemented and deployed. Moreover, the model brings better flexibility for developing context-aware applications.
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  • Masahiro TSUKADA, Yuya UTSUMI, Hirokazu MADOKORO, Kazuhito SATO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 127-136
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents an unsupervised learning-based method for selection of feature points and object category classification without previous setting of the number of categories. Our method consists of the following procedures: 1) detection of feature points and description of features using a Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), 2) selection of target feature points using One Class-Support Vector Machines (OC-SVMs), 3) generation of visual words of all SIFT descriptors and histograms in each image of selected feature points using Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), 4) formation of labels using Adaptive Resonance Theory-2 (ART-2), and 5) creation and classification of categories on a category map of Counter Propagation Networks (CPNs) for visualizing spatial relations between categories. Classification results of static images using a Caltech-256 object category dataset and dynamic images using time-series images obtained using a robot according to movements respectively demonstrate that our method can visualize spatial relations of categories while maintaining time-series characteristics. Moreover, we emphasize the effectiveness of our method for category classification of appearance changes of objects.
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  • Eun-Seok LEE, Byeong-Seok SHIN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer Graphics
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 137-145
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In terrain visualization, the quadtree is the most frequently used data structure for progressive mesh generation. The quadtree provides an efficient level of detail selection and view frustum culling. However, most applications using quadtrees are performed on the CPU, because the pointer and recursive operation in hierarchical data structure cannot be manipulated in a programmable rendering pipeline. We present a quadtree-based terrain rendering method for GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) execution that uses vertex splitting and triangle splitting. Vertex splitting supports a level of detail selection, and triangle splitting is used for crack removal. This method offers higher performance than previous CPU-based quadtree methods, without loss of image quality. We can then use the CPU for other computations while rendering the terrain using only the GPU.
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  • Hee Yuan TAN, Hyotaek LIM
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Natural Language Processing
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 146-154
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Owing to the high expressiveness of regular expression, it is frequently used in searching and manipulation of text based data. Regular expression is highly applicable in processing Latin alphabet based text, but the same cannot be said for Hangeul*, the writing system for Korean language. Although Hangeul possesses alphabetic features within the script, expressiveness of regular expression pattern using Hangeul is hindered by the absence of syllable decomposition. Without decomposition support in regular expression, searching through Hangeul text is limited to string literal matching. Literal matching has made enumeration of syllable candidates in regular expression pattern definition indispensable, albeit impractical, especially for a large set of syllable candidates. Although the existing implementation of canonical decomposition in Unicode standard does reduce a pre-composed Hangeul syllable into smaller unit of consonant-vowel or consonant-vowel-consonant letters, it still leaves quite a number of the individual letters in compounded form. We have observed that there is a necessity to further reduce the compounded letters into unit of basic letters to properly represent the Korean script in regular expression. We look at how the new canonical decomposition technique proposed by Kim can help in handling Hangeul in regular expression. In this paper, we examine several of the performance indicators of full decomposition of Hangeul syllable to better understand the overhead that might incur, if a full decomposition were to be implemented in a regular expression engine. For efficiency considerations, we propose a semi decomposition technique alongside with a notation for defining Hangeul syllables. The semi decomposition functions as an enhancement to the existing regular expression syntax by taking in some of the special constructs and features of the Korean language. This proposed technique intends to allow an end user to have a greater freedom to define regular expression syntax for Hangeul.
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  • Xinchun CUI, Xiaolin QIN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 155-157
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this letter, anonymity problems of wireless communications are discussed. The weak points of previous studies is analyzed, then a user authentication scheme with anonymity enhanced for wireless communications is proposed.
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  • Xian-Hua HAN, Xu QIAO, Yen-Wei CHEN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Pattern Recognition
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 158-161
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Subspace learning based face recognition methods have attracted considerable interest in recent years, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and some extensions for 2D analysis. However, a disadvantage of all these approaches is that they perform subspace analysis directly on the reshaped vector or matrix of pixel-level intensity, which is usually unstable under illumination or pose variance. In this paper, we propose to represent a face image as a local descriptor tensor, which is a combination of the descriptor of local regions (K*K-pixel patch) in the image, and is more efficient than the popular Bag-Of-Feature (BOF) model for local descriptor combination. Furthermore, we propose to use a multilinear subspace learning algorithm (Supervised Neighborhood Embedding-SNE) for discriminant feature extraction from the local descriptor tensor of face images, which can preserve local sample structure in feature space. We validate our proposed algorithm on Benchmark database Yale and PIE, and experimental results show recognition rate with our method can be greatly improved compared conventional subspace analysis methods especially for small training sample number.
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  • Yuuji MUKAI, Hideki NODA, Takashi OSANAI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 162-166
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper discusses speaker verification (SV) using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), where only utterances of enrolled speakers are required. Such an SV system can be realized using artificially generated cohorts instead of real cohorts from speaker databases. This paper presents a rational approach to set GMM parameters for artificial cohorts based on statistics of GMM parameters for real cohorts. Equal error rates for the proposed method are about 10% less than those for the previous method, where GMM parameters for artificial cohorts were set in an ad hoc manner.
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  • Wenjie XIE, De XU, Yingjun TANG, Geng CUI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2011 Volume E94.D Issue 1 Pages 167-170
    Published: January 01, 2011
    Released: January 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Previous works show that the probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) model is one of the best generative models for scene categorization and can obtain an acceptable classification accuracy. However, this method uses a certain number of topics to construct the final image representation. In such a way, it restricts the image description to one level of visual detail and cannot generate a higher accuracy rate. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel generative model, which is referred to as multi-scale multi-level probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model (msml-pLSA). This method consists of two parts: multi-scale part, which extracts visual details from the image of diverse resolutions, and multi-level part, which concentrates multiple levels of topic representation to model scene. The msml-pLSA model allows for the description of fine and coarse local image detail in one framework. The proposed method is evaluated on the well-known scene classification dataset with 15 scene categories, and experimental results show that the proposed msml-pLSA model can improve the classification accuracy compared with the typical classification methods.
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