IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Volume E97.D, Issue 3
Displaying 1-31 of 31 articles from this issue
Special Section on Foundations of Computer Science — New Trends in Theory of Computation and Algorithm —
• Hirotaka ONO
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 391
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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• Kazuki TERAOKA, Kohei HATANO, Eiji TAKIMOTO
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Computational Learning Theory, Game
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 392-398
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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We consider Monte Carlo tree search problem, a variant of Min-Max tree search problem where the score of each leaf is the expectation of some Bernoulli variables and not explicitly given but can be estimated through (random) playouts. The goal of this problem is, given a game tree and an oracle that returns an outcome of a playout, to find a child node of the root which attains an approximate min-max score. This problem arises in two player games such as computer Go. We propose a simple and efficient algorithm for Monte Carlo tree search problem.
• Satoshi FUJITA
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Optimizing Algorithms, Parallel and Distributed Computing
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 399-405
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In this paper, we consider the problem of partitioning a given collection of node sets into k collections such that the average size of collections is the largest, where the size of a collection is defined as the cardinarity of the union of the subsets contained in the collection. More concretely, we give an upper bound on the performance ratio of an approximation algorithm proposed by Abrams et al., which is known to have a performance ratio of at least 1-1/e≅0.6321 where e is Napier's constant. The proposed upper bound is 1-(2-d+1√2)d+1/2 for any d≥1 provided that k=o(n) which approaches to 0.75 as d increases.
• Masaki KAWABATA, Takao NISHIZEKI
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Graph Algorithms
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 406-412
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Let G be a graph with a single source w, assigned a positive integer called the supply. Every vertex other than w is a sink, assigned a nonnegative integer called the demand. Every edge is assigned a positive integer called the capacity. Then a spanning tree T of G is called a spanning distribution tree if the capacity constraint holds when, for every sink v, an amount of flow, equal to the demand of v, is sent from w to v along the path in T between them. The spanning distribution tree problem asks whether a given graph has a spanning distribution tree or not. In the paper, we first observe that the problem is NP-complete even for series-parallel graphs, and then give a pseudo-polynomial time algorithm to solve the problem for a given series-parallel graph G. The computation time is bounded by a polynomial in n and D, where n is the number of vertices in G and D is the sum of all demands in G.
• Kazuyuki MIURA
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Graph Algorithms
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 413-420
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In a convex drawing of a plane graph, all edges are drawn as straight-line segments without any edge-intersection and all facial cycles are drawn as convex polygons. In a convex grid drawing, all vertices are put on grid points. A plane graph G has a convex drawing if and only if G is internally triconnected, and an internally triconnected plane graph G has a convex grid drawing on an (n-1)×(n-1) grid if either G is triconnected or the triconnected component decomposition tree T(G) of G has two or three leaves, where n is the number of vertices in G. An internally triconnected plane graph G has a convex grid drawing on a 2n×2n grid if T(G) has exactly four leaves. In this paper, we show that an internally triconnected plane graph G has a convex grid drawing on a 6n×n2 grid if T(G) has exactly five leaves. We also present an algorithm to find such a drawing in linear time. This is the first algorithm that finds a convex grid drawing of such a plane graph G in a grid of polynomial size.
• Kunihiro WASA, Yusaku KANETA, Takeaki UNO, Hiroki ARIMURA
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Graph Algorithms, Knowledge Discovery
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 421-430
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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By the motivation to discover patterns in massive structured data in the form of graphs and trees, we study a special case of the k-subtree enumeration problem with a tree of n nodes as an input graph, which is originally introduced by (Ferreira, Grossi, and Rizzi, ESA'11, 275-286, 2011) for general graphs. Based on reverse search technique (Avis and Fukuda, Discrete Appl. Math., vol.65, pp.21-46, 1996), we present the first constant delay enumeration algorithm that lists all k-subtrees of an input rooted tree in O(1) worst-case time per subtree. This result improves on the straightforward application of Ferreira et al.'s algorithm with O(k) amortized time per subtree when an input is restricted to tree. Finally, we discuss an application of our algorithm to a modification of the graph motif problem for trees.
• Koji NAKANO
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Parallel and Distributed Computing
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 431-441
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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The Discrete Memory Machine (DMM) and the Unified Memory Machine (UMM) are theoretical parallel computing models that capture the essence of the shared memory and the global memory of GPUs. It is assumed that warps (or groups of threads) on the DMM and the UMM work synchronously in a round-robin manner. However, warps work asynchronously in real GPUs, in the sense that they are randomly (or arbitrarily) dispatched for execution. The first contribution of this paper is to introduce asynchronous versions of these models in which warps are arbitrarily dispatched. In addition, we assume that threads can execute the “syncthreads” instruction for barrier synchronization. Since the barrier synchronization operation may be costly, we should evaluate and minimize the number of barrier synchronization operations executed by parallel algorithms. The second contribution of this paper is to show a parallel algorithm to the sum of n numbers in optimal computing time and few barrier synchronization steps. Our parallel algorithm computes the sum of n numbers in O(n/w+llog n) time units and O(log l/log w+log log w) barrier synchronization steps using wl threads on the asynchronous UMM with width w and latency l. Since the computation of the sum takes at least Ω(n/w+llog n) time units, this algorithm is time optimal. Finally, we show that the prefix-sums of n numbers can also be computed in O(n/w+llog n) time units and O(log l/log w+log log w) barrier synchronization steps using wl threads.
• Shuji ISOBE, Eisuke KOIZUMI, Yuji NISHIGAKI, Hiroki SHIZUYA
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Fundamentals of Information Systems
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 442-447
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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This paper studies the complexity of computing discrete logarithms over algebraic tori. We show that the order certified version of the discrete logarithm problem over general finite fields (OCDL, in symbols) reduces to the discrete logarithm problem over algebraic tori (TDL, in symbols) with respect to the polynomial-time Turing reducibility. This reduction means that if the prime factorization can be computed in polynomial time, then TDL is equivalent to the discrete logarithm problem over general finite fields with respect to the Turing reducibility.
• Shuichi INOKUCHI, Takahiro ITO, Mitsuhiko FUJIO, Yoshihiro MIZOGUCHI
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Cellular Automata
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 448-454
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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We introduce the notion of 'Composition', 'Union' and 'Division' of cellular automata on groups. A kind of notions of compositions was investigated by Sato [10] and Manzini [6] for linear cellular automata, we extend the notion to general cellular automata on groups and investigated their properties. We observe the all unions and compositions generated by one-dimensional 2-neighborhood cellular automata over Z2 including non-linear cellular automata. Next we prove that the composition is right-distributive over union, but is not left-distributive. Finally, we conclude by showing reformulation of our definition of cellular automata on group which admit more than three states. We also show our formulation contains the representation using formal power series for linear cellular automata in Manzini [6].
Regular Section
• Qing LIU, Tomohiro ODAKA, Jousuke KUROIWA, Haruhiko SHIRAI, Hisakazu O ...
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Fundamentals of Information Systems
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 455-468
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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A new artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) for solving the multiple knapsack problem (MKP) is introduced in this paper. In the proposed AFSA, artificial fish (AF) individuals are only allowed to search the region near constraint boundaries of the problem to be solved. For this purpose, several behaviors to be performed by AF individuals, including escaping behavior, randomly moving behavior, preying behavior and following behavior, were specially designed. Exhaustive experiments were implemented in order to investigate the proposed AFSA's performance. The results demonstrated the proposed AFSA has the ability of finding high-quality solutions with very fast speed, as compared with some other versions of AFSA based on different constraint-handling methods. This study is also meaningful for solving other constrained problems.
• Hiroshi YAMADA, Shuntaro TONOSAKI, Kenji KONO
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Software System
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 469-479
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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• Min-Seok LEE, Cheol-Hoon LEE
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Software System
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 480-487
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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For battery based real-time embedded systems, high performance to meet their real-time constraints and energy efficiency to extend battery life are both essential. Real-Time Dynamic Voltage Scaling (RT-DVS) has been a key technique to satisfy both requirements. This paper presents EccEDF (Enhanced ccEDF), an efficient algorithm based on ccEDF. ccEDF is one of the most simple but efficient RT-DVS algorithms. Its simple structure enables it to be easily and intuitively coupled with a real-time operating system without incurring any significant cost. ccEDF, however, overlooks an important factor in calculating the available slacks for reducing the operating frequency. It calculates the saved utilization simply by dividing the slack by the period without considering the time needed to run the task. If the elapsed time is considered, the maximum utilization saved by the slack on completion of the task can be found. The proposed EccEDF can precisely calculate the maximum unused utilization with consideration of the elapsed time while keeping the structural simplicity of ccEDF. Further, we analytically establish the feasibility of EccEDF using the fluid scheduling model. Our simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms ccEDF in all simulations. A simulation shows that EccEDF consumes 27% less energy than ccEDF.
• Yingxu LAI, Wenwen ZHANG, Zhen YANG
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Software Engineering
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 488-496
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In this paper, we propose a new trusted modeling approach based on state graphs. We introduce a novel method of deriving state-layer from a system call sequence in terms of probability and statistics theory, and we identify the state sequence with the help of Hidden Markov Model (HMM). We generate state transition graph according to software executing process and pruning rules. Then, we separate local function graphs according to software specific functions by semantic analysis. The state-layer is a bridge between the basic behaviors and the upper layer functions of software to compensate semantic faults. In addition, a pruning strategy of formulating state graphs is designed to precisely describe each piece of software functions. Finally, a detecting system based on our model is proposed, and a case study of RSS software reveals how our system works. The results demonstrate that our trusted model describes software behaviors successfully and can well detect un-trust behaviors, anomaly behaviors, and illegal input behaviors.
• Yong SONG, Kyuho PARK
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Data Engineering, Web Information Systems
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 497-509
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Traditionally, in computer systems, file I/O has been a big performance bottleneck for I/O intensive applications. The recent advent of non-volatile byte-addressable memory (NVM) technologies such as STT-MRAM and PCM, provides a chance to store persistent data with a high performance close to DRAM's. However, as the location of the persistent storage device gets closer to the CPU, the system software layers overheads for accessing the data such as file system layer including virtual file system layer and device driver are no longer negligible. In this paper, we propose a light-weight user-level persistent storage, called UStore, which is physically allocated on the NVM and is mapped directly into the virtual address space of an application. UStore makes it possible for the application to fast access the persistent data without the system software overheads and extra data copy between the user space and kernel space. We show how UStore is easily applied to existing applications with little elaboration and evaluate its performance enhancement through several benchmark tests.
• Takao MURAKAMI, Kenta TAKAHASHI, Kanta MATSUURA
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Information Network
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 510-523
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Biometric identification has recently attracted attention because of its convenience: it does not require a user ID nor a smart card. However, both the identification error rate and response time increase as the number of enrollees increases. In this paper, we combine a score level fusion scheme and a metric space indexing scheme to improve the accuracy and response time in biometric identification, using only scores as information sources. We firstly propose a score level indexing and fusion framework which can be constructed from the following three schemes: (I) a pseudo-score based indexing scheme, (II) a multi-biometric search scheme, and (III) a score level fusion scheme which handles missing scores. A multi-biometric search scheme can be newly obtained by applying a pseudo-score based indexing scheme to multi-biometric identification. We secondly propose the NBS (Naive Bayes search) scheme as a multi-biometric search scheme and discuss its optimality with respect to the retrieval error rate. We evaluated our proposal using the datasets of multiple fingerprints and face scores from multiple matchers. The results showed that our proposal significantly improved the accuracy of the unimodal biometrics while reducing the average number of score computations in both the datasets.
• Jiu-jun CHENG, Shangce GAO, Catherine VAIRAPPAN, Rong-Long WANG, Antti ...
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Information Network
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 524-532
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Software watermarking is a digital technique used to protect software by embedding some secret information as identification in order to discourage software piracy and unauthorized modification. Watermarking is still a relatively new field and has good potential in protecting software from privacy threats. However, there appears to be a security vulnerability in the watermark trigger behaviour, and has been frequently attacked. By tracing the watermark trigger behaviour, attackers can easily intrude into the software and locate and expose the watermark for modification. In order to address this problem, we propose an algorithm that obscures the watermark trigger behaviour by utilizing buffer overflow. The code of the watermark trigger behaviour is removed from the software product itself, making it more difficult for attackers to trace the software. Experiments show that the new algorithm has promising performance in terms of the imperceptibility of software watermark.
• Wenpo ZHANG, Kazuteru NAMBA, Hideo ITO
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Dependable Computing
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 533-540
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In recent VLSIs, small-delay defects, which are hard to detect by traditional delay fault testing, can bring about serious issues such as short lifetime. To detect small-delay defects, on-chip delay measurement which measures the delay time of paths in the circuit under test (CUT) was proposed. However, this approach incurs high test cost because it uses scan design, which brings about long test application time due to scan shift operation. Our solution is a test application time reduction method for testing using the on-chip path delay measurement. The testing with on-chip path delay measurement does not require capture operations, unlike the conventional delay testing. Specifically, FFs keep the transition pattern of the test pattern pair sensitizing a path under measurement (PUM) (denoted as p) even after the measurement of p. The proposed method uses this characteristic. The proposed method reduces scan shift time and test data volume using test pattern merging. Evaluation results on ISCAS89 benchmark circuits indicate that the proposed method reduces the test application time by 6.89∼62.67% and test data volume by 46.39∼74.86%.
• Trung Thanh NGO, Yasushi MAKIHARA, Hajime NAGAHARA, Yasuhiro MUKAIGAWA ...
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Pattern Recognition
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 541-553
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Gait-based owner authentication using accelerometers has recently been extensively studied owing to the development of wearable electronic devices. An actual gait signal is always subject to change due to many factors including variation of sensor attachment. In this research, we tackle to the practical sensor-orientation inconsistency, for which signal sequences are captured at different sensor orientations. We present an iterative signal matching algorithm based on phase-registration technique to simultaneously estimate relative sensor-orientation and register the 3D acceleration signals. The iterative framework is initialized by using 1D orientation-invariant resultant signals which are computed from 3D signals. As a result, the matching algorithm is robust to any initial sensor-orientation. This matching algorithm is used to match a probe and a gallery signals in the proposed owner authentication method. Experiments using actual gait signals under various conditions such as different days, sensors, weights being carried, and sensor orientations show that our authentication method achieves positive results.
• Haiyang LI, Tieran ZHENG, Guibin ZHENG, Jiqing HAN
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Speech and Hearing
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 554-561
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In this paper, we propose a novel confidence measure to improve the performance of spoken term detection (STD). The proposed confidence measure is based on the context consistency between a hypothesized word and its context in a word lattice. The main contribution of this paper is to compute the context consistency by considering the uncertainty in the results of speech recognition and the effect of topic. To measure the uncertainty of the context, we employ the word occurrence probability, which is obtained through combining the overlapping hypotheses in a word posterior lattice. To handle the effect of topic, we propose a method of topic adaptation. The adaptation method firstly classifies the spoken document according to the topics and then computes the context consistency of the hypothesized word with the topic-specific measure of semantic similarity. Additionally, we apply the topic-specific measure of semantic similarity by two means, and they are performed respectively with the information of the top-1 topic and the mixture of all topics according to topic classification. The experiments conducted on the Hub-4NE Mandarin database show that both the occurrence probability of context word and the topic adaptation are effective for the confidence measure of STD. The proposed confidence measure performs better compared with the one ignoring the uncertainty of the context or the one using a non-topic method.
• Sinwook LEE, Euee-seon JANG
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 562-572
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In this paper, we propose a bitstream-level noise cancellation method for playback applications of damaged video. Most analog video data such as movies, news and historical research videos are now stored in a digital format after a series of conversion processes that include analog-to-digital conversion and compression. In many cases, noise such as blotches and line scratching remaining in analog media are not removed during the conversion process. On the other hand, noise is propagated in the compression stage because most media compression technologies use predictive coding. Therefore, it is imperative to efficiently remove or reduce the artifacts caused by noise as much as possible. In some cases, the video data with historical values are to be preserved without correcting the noise in order not to lose any important information resulting from the noise removal process. However, playback applications of such video data still need to undergo a noise reduction process to ensure picture quality for public viewing. The proposed algorithm identifies the candidate noise blocks at the bitstream-level to directly provide a noise reduction process while decoding the bitstream. Throughout the experimental results, we confirm the efficiency of the proposed method by showing RR and PR values of around 70 percent.
• Yoichi TOMIOKA, Ryota TAKASU, Takashi AOKI, Eiichi HOSOYA, Hitoshi KIT ...
Article type: PAPER
Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 573-582
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Hardware acceleration is an essential technique for extracting and tracking moving objects in real time. It is desirable to design tracking algorithms such that they are applicable for parallel computations on hardware. Exclusive block matching methods are designed for hardware implementation, and they can realize detailed motion extraction as well as robust moving object tracking. In this study, we develop tracking hardware based on an exclusive block matching method on FPGA. This tracking hardware is based on a two-dimensional systolic array architecture, and can realize robust moving object extraction and tracking at more than 100 fps for QVGA images using the high parallelism of an exclusive block matching method, synchronous shift data transfer, and special circuits to accelerate searching the exclusive correspondence of blocks.
• Qian GUO, Haibin KAN
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Fundamentals of Information Systems
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 583-588
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In this paper, we present an average-case efficient algorithm to resolve the problem of determining whether two Boolean functions in trace representation are identical. Firstly, we introduce a necessary and sufficient condition for null Boolean functions in trace representation, which can be viewed as a generalization of the well-known additive Hilbert-90 theorem. Based on this condition, we propose an algorithmic method with preprocessing to address the original problem. The worst-case complexity of the algorithm is still exponential; its average-case performance, however, can be improved. We prove that the expected complexity of the refined procedure is O(n), if the coefficients of input functions are chosen i.i.d. according to the uniform distribution over F2n; therefore, it performs well in practice.
• Vladimir V. STANKOVIC, Nebojsa Z. MILENKOVIC, Oliver M. VOJINOVIC
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Computer System
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 589-592
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In the arsenal of resources for improving computer memory system performance, predictors have gained an increasing role in the past few years. They can suppress the latencies when accessing cache or main memory. In our previous work we proposed predictors that not only close the opened DRAM row but also predict the next row to be opened, hence the name ‘Complete Predictor’. It requires less than 10kB of SRAM for a 2GB SDRAM system. In this paper we evaluate how much additional hardware is needed and whether the activations of the predictors will slow down the DRAM controller.
• Takeshi KUMAKI, Kei NAKAO, Kohei HOZUMI, Takeshi OGURA, Takeshi FUJINO
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Information Network
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 593-596
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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This paper reports on the image compression tolerability and high implementability of a novel proposed watermarking method that uses a morphological wavelet transform based on max-plus algebra. This algorithm is suitable for embedded low-power processors in mobile devices. For objective and unified evaluation of the capability of the proposed watermarking algorithm, we focus attention on a watermarking contest presented by the IHC, which belongs to the IEICE and investigate the image quality and tolerance against JPEG compression attack. During experiments for this contest, six benchmark images processed by the proposed watermarking is done to reduce the file size of original images to 1/10, 1/20, or less, and the error rate of embedding data is reduced to 0%. Thus, the embedded data can be completely extracted. The PSNR value is up to 54.66dB in these experiments. Furthermore, when the smallest image size is attained 0.49MB and the PSNR value become about 52dB, the proposed algorithm maintains very high quality with an error rate of 0%. Additionally, the processing time of the proposed watermarking can realize about 416.4 and 4.6 times faster than that of DCT and HWT on the ARM processor, respectively. As a result, the proposed watermarking method achieves effective processing capability for mobile processors.
• He LI, KyoungSoo BOK, JaeSoo YOO
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Information Network
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 597-600
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In this paper, we design an efficient P2P based mobile social network to facilitate contents search over mobile ad hoc networks. Social relation is established by considering both the locations and interests of mobile nodes. Mobile nodes with common interests and nearby locations are recommended as friends and are connected directly in a mobile social network. Contents search is handled by using social relationships of the mobile social network rather than those of the whole network. Since each mobile node manages only neighboring nodes that have common interests, network management overhead is reduced. Results of experiments have shown that our proposed method outperforms existing methods.
• Donghai TIAN, Xuanya LI, Mo CHEN, Changzhen HU
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Information Network
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 601-605
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Heap buffer overflow has been extensively studied for many years, but it remains a severe threat to software security. Previous solutions suffer from limitations in that: 1) Some methods need to modify the target programs; 2) Most methods could impose considerable performance overhead. In this paper, we present iCruiser, an efficient heap buffer overflow monitoring system that uses the multi-core technology. Our system is compatible with existing programs, and it can detect the heap buffer overflows concurrently. Compared with the latest heap protection systems, our approach can achieves stronger security guarantees. Experiments show that iCruiser can detect heap buffer overflow attacks effectively with a little performance overhead.
• Mingfu XUE, Wei LIU, Aiqun HU, Youdong WANG
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Dependable Computing
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 606-609
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Hardware Trojan (HT) has emerged as an impending security threat to hardware systems. However, conventional functional tests fail to detect HT since Trojans are triggered by rare events. Most of the existing side-channel based HT detection techniques just simply compare and analyze circuit's parameters and offer no signal calibration or error correction properties, so they suffer from the challenge and interference of large process variations (PV) and noises in modern nanotechnology which can completely mask Trojan's contribution to the circuit. This paper presents a novel HT detection method based on subspace technique which can detect tiny HT characteristics under large PV and noises. First, we formulate the HT detection problem as a weak signal detection problem, and then we model it as a feature extraction model. After that, we propose a novel subspace HT detection technique based on time domain constrained estimator. It is proved that we can distinguish the weak HT from variations and noises through particular subspace projections and reconstructed clean signal analysis. The reconstructed clean signal of the proposed algorithm can also be used for accurate parameter estimation of circuits, e.g. power estimation. The proposed technique is a general method for related HT detection schemes to eliminate noises and PV. Both simulations on benchmarks and hardware implementation validations on FPGA boards show the effectiveness and high sensitivity of the new HT detection technique.
• Jingjie YAN, Wenming ZHENG, Minhai XIN, Jingwei YAN
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Pattern Recognition
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 610-613
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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In this letter, we research the method of using face and gesture image sequences to deal with the video-based bimodal emotion recognition problem, in which both Harris plus cuboids spatio-temporal feature (HST) and sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) fusion method are applied to this end. To efficaciously pick up the spatio-temporal features, we adopt the Harris 3D feature detector proposed by Laptev and Lindeberg to find the points from both face and gesture videos, and then apply the cuboids feature descriptor to extract the facial expression and gesture emotion features [1],[2]. To further extract the common emotion features from both facial expression feature set and gesture feature set, the SCCA method is applied and the extracted emotion features are used for the biomodal emotion classification, where the K-nearest neighbor classifier and the SVM classifier are respectively used for this purpose. We test this method on the biomodal face and body gesture (FABO) database and the experimental results demonstrate the better recognition accuracy compared with other methods.
• Changhong CHEN, Shunqing YANG, Zongliang GAN
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Pattern Recognition
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 614-617
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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Cross-view action recognition is a challenging research field for human motion analysis. Appearance-based features are not credible if the viewpoint changes. In this paper, a new framework is proposed for cross-view action recognition by topic based knowledge transfer. First, Spatio-temporal descriptors are extracted from the action videos and each video is modeled by a bag of visual words (BoVW) based on the codebook constructed by the k-means cluster algorithm. Second, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is employed to assign topics for the BoVW representation. The topic distribution of visual words (ToVW) is normalized and taken to be the feature vector. Third, in order to bridge different views, we transform ToVW into bilingual ToVW by constructing bilingual dictionaries, which guarantee that the same action has the same representation from different views. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on the IXMAS multi-view dataset.
• Trung Hieu BUI, Takeshi SAITOH, Eitaku NOBUYAMA
Article type: LETTER
Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
2014 Volume E97.D Issue 3 Pages 618-621
Published: March 01, 2014
Released on J-STAGE: March 01, 2014
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This paper proposes a vanishing point-based road detection method. Firstly, a vanishing point is detected using a texture-based method proposed in a recent study. After that, a histogram is generated for detecting two road borders. The road area is defined as the region between the two road borders and below the vanishing point. The experimental results demonstrate that our method performs well in general road images.