IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Volume E95.D , Issue 10
Showing 1-30 articles out of 30 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Mohamad Sofian ABU TALIP, Takayuki AKAMINE, Yasunori OSANA, Naoyuki FU ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2369-2376
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used as a common design tool in the aerospace industry. UPACS, a package for CFD, is convenient for users, since a customized simulator can be built just by selecting desired functions. The problem is its computation speed, which is difficult to enhance by using the clusters due to its complex memory access patterns. As an economical solution, accelerators using FPGAs are hopeful candidate. However, the total scale of UPACS is too large to be implemented on small numbers of FPGAs. For cost efficient implementation, partial reconfiguration which dynamically loads only required functions is proposed in this paper. Here, the MUSCL scheme, which is used frequently in UPACS, is selected as a target. Partial reconfiguration is applied to the flux limiter functions (FLF) in MUSCL. Four FLFs are implemented for Turbulence MUSCL (TMUSCL) and eight FLFs are for Convection MUSCL (CMUSCL). All FLFs are developed independently and separated from the top MUSCL module. At start-up, only required FLFs are selected and deployed in the system without interfering the other modules. This implementation has successfully reduced the resource utilization by 44% to 63%. Total power consumption also reduced by 33%. Configuration speed is improved by 34-times faster as compared to full reconfiguration method. All implemented functions achieved at least 17 times speed-up performance compared with the software implementation.
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  • Cheol-Ho HONG, Young-Pil KIM, Seehwan YOO, Chi-Young LEE, Chuck YOO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Software System
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2377-2392
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Facing practical limits to increasing processor frequencies, manufacturers have resorted to multi-core designs in their commercial products. In multi-core implementations, cores in a physical package share the last-level caches to improve inter-core communication. To efficiently exploit this facility, operating systems must employ cache-aware schedulers. Unfortunately, virtualization software, which is a foundation technology of cloud computing, is not yet cache-aware or does not fully exploit the locality of the last-level caches. In this paper, we propose a cache-aware virtual machine scheduler for multi-core architectures. The proposed scheduler exploits the locality of the last-level caches to improve the performance of concurrent applications running on virtual machines. For this purpose, we provide a space-partitioning algorithm that migrates and clusters communicating virtual CPUs (VCPUs) in the same cache domain. Second, we provide a time-partitioning algorithm that co-schedules or schedules in sequence clustered VCPUs. Finally, we present a theoretical analysis that proves our scheduling algorithm is more efficient in supporting concurrent applications than the default credit scheduler in Xen. We implemented our virtual machine scheduler in the recent Xen hypervisor with para-virtualized Linux-based operating systems. We show that our approach can improve performance of concurrent virtual machines by up to 19% compared to the credit scheduler.
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  • Jung-Yoon KIM, Hyoung-Kee CHOI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2393-2400
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We demonstrate how Hsiang and Shih's authentication scheme can be compromised and then propose an improved scheme based on the Rabin cryptosystem to overcome its weaknesses. Furthermore, we discuss the reason why we should use an asymmetric encryption algorithm to secure a password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. We formally prove the security of our proposed scheme using the BAN logic.
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  • Souheil BEN AYED, Fumio TERAOKA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2401-2414
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Internet infrastructure is evolving with various approaches such as cloud computing. Interest in cloud computing is growing with the rise of services and applications particularly in business community. For delivering service securely, cloud computing providers are facing several security issues, including controlling access to services and ensuring privacy. Most of access control approaches tend to a centralization of policy administration and decision by introducing a mediator central third party. However, with the growth of the Internet and the increase of cloud computing providers, a centralized administration is no longer supported. In this paper, we present a new collaborative access control infrastructure for distributed cloud computing environment, supporting collaborative delegations across multiple domains in order to authorize users to access services at a visited domain that does not have a direct cooperative relationship with the user's home domain. For this purpose, we propose an extension of the XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) model with a new entity called Delegation Validation Point (DVP) to support multi-domain delegation in a distributed environment. We describe the new extended model and functionalities of the new component. In addition, we define new XACML messages for acquiring delegation across domains. For exchanging delegation between domains we use SAML (Security Association Markup Language) and Diameter protocol. Two Diameter applications are defined for transporting securely multiple delegation requests and answers and for building a trusted path of cooperation to acquire the chain of delegations. We detail the implemented prototype and evaluate performance within a testbed of up to 20 domains.
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  • Sirinart TANGRUAMSUB, Aram KAWEWONG, Manabu TSUBOYAMA, Osamu HASEGAWA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2415-2425
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a new incremental approach for robot navigation using associative memory. We defined the association as node→action→node where node is the robot position and action is the action of a robot (i.e., orientation, direction). These associations are used for path planning by retrieving a sequence of path fragments (in form of (node→action→node) → (node→action→node) →…) starting from the start point to the goal. To learn such associations, we applied the associative memory using Self-Organizing Incremental Associative Memory (SOIAM). Our proposed method comprises three layers: input layer, memory layer and associative layer. The input layer is used for collecting input observations. The memory layer clusters the obtained observations into a set of topological nodes incrementally. In the associative layer, the associative memory is used as the topological map where nodes are associated with actions. The advantages of our method are that 1) it does not need prior knowledge, 2) it can process data in continuous space which is very important for real-world robot navigation and 3) it can learn in an incremental unsupervised manner. Experiments are done with a realistic robot simulator: Webots. We divided the experiments into 4 parts to show the ability of creating a map, incremental learning and symbol-based recognition. Results show that our method offers a 90% success rate for reaching the goal.
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  • Jaak SIMM, Masashi SUGIYAMA, Hirotaka HACHIYA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2426-2437
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a flexible framework for learning a decision rule in an unknown environment. However, a large number of samples are often required for finding a useful decision rule. To mitigate this problem, the concept of transfer learning has been employed to utilize knowledge obtained from similar RL tasks. However, most approaches developed so far are useful only in low-dimensional settings. In this paper, we propose a novel transfer learning idea that targets problems with high-dimensional states. Our idea is to transfer knowledge between state factors (e.g., interacting objects) within a single RL task. This allows the agent to learn the system dynamics of the target RL task with fewer data samples. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.
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  • Nuo ZHANG, Toshinori WATANABE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2438-2446
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Nowadays, there are a great deal of e-documents being accessed on the Internet. It would be helpful if those documents and significant extract contents could be automatically analyzed. Similarity analysis and topic extraction are widely used as document relation analysis techniques. Most of the methods being proposed need some processes such as stemming, stop words removal, and etc. In those methods, natural language processing (NLP) technology is necessary and hence they are dependent on the language feature and the dataset. In this study, we propose novel document relation analysis and topic extraction methods based on text compression. Our proposed approaches do not require NLP, and can also automatically evaluate documents. We challenge our proposal with model documents, URCS and Reuters-21578 dataset, for relation analysis and topic extraction. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is shown by the simulations.
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  • Woosuk KIM, Hideaki KUZUOKA, Kenji SUZUKI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Human-computer Interaction
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2447-2455
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The style of a gesture provides significant information for communication, and thus understanding the style is of great importance in improving gestural interfaces using hand gestures. We present a novel method to estimate temporal and spatial scale — which are considered principal elements of the style — of hand gestures. Gesture synchronization is proposed for matching progression between spatio-temporally varying gestures, and scales are estimated based on the progression matching. For comparing gestures of various sizes and speeds, gesture representation is defined by adopting turning angle representation. Also, LCSS is used as a similarity measure for reliability and robustness to noise and outliers. Performance of our algorithm is evaluated with synthesized data to show the accuracy and robustness to noise and experiments are carried out using recorded hand gestures to analyze applicability under real-world situations.
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  • Sungwon KANG, Jihyun LEE, Danhyung LEE, Jongmoon BAIK
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Office Information Systems, e-Business Modeling
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2456-2468
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As business values pursued by today's organizations are abstract concepts, measurement of these values and their achievement is not straightforward. This paper proposes a value achievement measuring and managing framework, which recursively decomposes business values to construct a value hierarchy and then links it with the business process hierarchy. The framework makes it possible to measure value achievement, trace values to processes, and take necessary actions in response to the measured progress in value achievement.
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  • Takafumi KOSHINAKA, Kentaro NAGATOMO, Koichi SHINODA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2469-2478
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A novel online speaker clustering method based on a generative model is proposed. It employs an incremental variant of variational Bayesian learning and provides probabilistic (non-deterministic) decisions for each input utterance, on the basis of the history of preceding utterances. It can be expected to be robust against errors in cluster estimation and the classification of utterances, and hence to be applicable to many real-time applications. Experimental results show that it produces 50% fewer classification errors than does a conventional online method. They also show that it is possible to reduce the number of speech recognition errors by combining the method with unsupervised speaker adaptation.
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  • Arata ITOH, Sunao HARA, Norihide KITAOKA, Kazuya TAKEDA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2479-2485
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A novel speech feature generation-based acoustic model training method for robust speaker-independent speech recognition is proposed. For decades, speaker adaptation methods have been widely used. All of these adaptation methods need adaptation data. However, our proposed method aims to create speaker-independent acoustic models that cover not only known but also unknown speakers. We achieve this by adopting inverse maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) transformation-based feature generation, and then we train our models using these features. First we obtain MLLR transformation matrices from a limited number of existing speakers. Then we extract the bases of the MLLR transformation matrices using PCA. The distribution of the weight parameters to express the transformation matrices for the existing speakers are estimated. Next, we construct pseudo-speaker transformations by sampling the weight parameters from the distribution, and apply the transformation to the normalized features of the existing speaker to generate the features of the pseudo-speakers. Finally, using these features, we train the acoustic models. Evaluation results show that the acoustic models trained using our proposed method are robust for unknown speakers.
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  • Hiroko MURAKAMI, Koichi SHINODA, Sadaoki FURUI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2486-2494
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We propose an active learning framework for speech recognition that reduces the amount of data required for acoustic modeling. This framework consists of two steps. We first obtain a phone-error distribution using an acoustic model estimated from transcribed speech data. Then, from a text corpus we select a sentence whose phone-occurrence distribution is close to the phone-error distribution and collect its speech data. We repeat this process to increase the amount of transcribed speech data. We applied this framework to speaker adaptation and acoustic model training. Our evaluation results showed that it significantly reduced the amount of transcribed data while maintaining the same level of accuracy.
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  • Aroba KHAN, Hernan AGUIRRE, Kiyoshi TANAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2495-2504
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents two halftoning methods to improve efficiency in generating structurally similar halftone images using Structure Similarity Index Measurement (SSIM). Proposed Method I reduces the pixel evaluation area by applying pixel-swapping algorithm within inter-correlated blocks followed by phase block-shifting. The effect of various initial pixel arrangements is also investigated. Proposed Method II further improves efficiency by applying bit-climbing algorithm within inter-correlated blocks of the image. Simulation results show that proposed Method I improves efficiency as well as image quality by using an appropriate initial pixel arrangement. Proposed Method II reaches a better image quality with fewer evaluations than pixel-swapping algorithm used in Method I and the conventional structure aware halftone methods.
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  • Guo-An JIAN, Cheng-An CHIEN, Peng-Sheng CHEN, Jiun-In GUO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2505-2513
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a verification-aware design methodology that provides developers with a systematic and reliable approach to performing thread-pipelining parallelization on sequential programs. In contrast to traditional design flow, a behavior-model program is constructed before parallelizing as a bridge to help developers gradually leverage the technique of thread-pipelining parallelization. The proposed methodology integrates verification mechanisms into the design flow. To demonstrate the practicality of the proposed methodology, we applied it to the parallelization of a 3D depth map generator with thread pipelining. The parallel 3D depth map generator was further integrated into a 3D video playing system for evaluation of the verification overheads of the proposed methodology and the system performance. The results show the parallel system can achieve 33.72fps in D1 resolution and 12.22fps in HD720 resolution through a five-stage pipeline. When verifying the parallel program, the proposed verification approach keeps the performance degradation within 23% and 21.1% in D1 and HD720 resolutions, respectively.
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  • Guoliang LU, Mineichi KUDO, Jun TOYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2514-2521
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Vision based human action recognition has been an active research field in recent years. Exemplar matching is an important and popular methodology in this field, however, most previous works perform exemplar matching on the whole input video clip for recognition. Such a strategy is computationally expensive and limits its practical usage. In this paper, we present a martingale framework for selection of characteristic frames from an input video clip without requiring any prior knowledge. Action recognition is operated on these selected characteristic frames. Experiments on 10 studied actions from WEIZMANN dataset demonstrate a significant improvement in computational efficiency (54% reduction) while achieving the same recognition precision.
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  • Masaki KOBAYASHI, Keisuke KAMEYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2522-2532
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In camera-based object recognition and classification, surface color is one of the most important characteristics. However, apparent object color may differ significantly according to the illumination and surface conditions. Such a variation can be an obstacle in utilizing color features. Geusebroek et al.'s color invariants can be a powerful tool for characterizing the object color regardless of illumination and surface conditions. In this work, we analyze the estimation process of the color invariants from RGB images, and propose a novel invariant feature of color based on the elementary invariants to meet the circular continuity residing in the mapping between colors and their invariants. Experiments show that the use of the proposed invariant in combination with luminance, contributes to improve the retrieval performances of partial object image matching under varying illumination conditions.
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  • Xue GAO, Jinzhi GUO, Lianwen JIN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2533-2543
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular dimensionality reduction techniques in existing handwritten Chinese character (HCC) recognition systems. However, when used for unconstrained handwritten Chinese character recognition, the traditional LDA algorithm is prone to two problems, namely, the class separation problem and multimodal sample distributions. To deal with these problems,we propose a new locally linear discriminant analysis (LLDA) method for handwritten Chinese character recognition.Our algorithm operates as follows. (1) Using the clustering algorithm, find clusters for the samples of each class. (2) Find the nearest neighboring clusters from the remaining classes for each cluster of one class. Then, use the corresponding cluster means to compute the between-class scatter matrix in LDA while keeping the within-class scatter matrix unchanged. (3) Finally, apply feature vector normalization to further improve the class separation problem. A series of experiments on both the HCL2000 and CASIA Chinese character handwriting databases show that our method can effectively improve recognition performance, with a reduction in error rate of 28.7% (HCL2000) and 16.7% (CASIA) compared with the traditional LDA method.Our algorithm also outperforms DLA (Discriminative Locality Alignment,one of the representative manifold learning-based dimensionality reduction algorithms proposed recently). Large-set handwritten Chinese character recognition experiments also verified the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
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  • Raouf SENHADJI-NAVARRO, Ignacio GARCIA-VARGAS
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2544-2547
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This letter proposes a new model of state machine called Finite Virtual State Machine (FVSM). A memory-based architecture and a procedure for generating FVSM implementations from Finite State Machines (FSMs) are presented. FVSM implementations provide advantages in speed over conventional RAM-based FSM implementations. The results of experiments prove the feasibility of this approach.
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  • Chen CHEN, Qingqi PEI, Xiaoji LI, Rong SUN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2548-2551
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this letter, a Simple but Effective Congestion Control scheme (SECC) in VANET has been proposed to guarantee the successful transmissions for safety-related nodes. The strategy derive a Maximum Beacon Load Activity Indicator (MBLAI) to restrain the neighboring general periodical beacon load for the investigated safety-related “observation nodes”, i.e., the nodes associated with some emergent events. This mechanism actually reserves some bandwidth for the safety-related nodes to make them have higher priorities than periodical beacons to access channel. Different from the static congestion control scheme in IEEE802.11p, this strategy could provide dynamic control strength for congestion according to tolerant packets drop ratio for different applications.
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  • Junxiang WANG, Jiangqun NI, Dong ZHANG, Hao LUO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Data Engineering, Web Information Systems
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2552-2555
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the letter, we propose an improved histogram shifting (HS) based reversible data hiding scheme for small payload embedding. Conventional HS based schemes are not suitable for low capacity embedding with relatively large distortion due to the inflexible side information selection. From an analysis of the whole HS process, we develop a rate-distortion model and provide an optimal adaptive searching approach for side information selection according to the given payload. Experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed scheme in terms of performance curve for low payload embedding.
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  • Seok-Ho YOON, Ji-Su KIM, Sang-Wook KIM, Choonhwa LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2556-2559
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a novel similarity measure that computes similarity scores among scientific research papers. The text of a given paper in online scientific literature is often found to be incomplete in terms of its potential to be compared with others, which likely leads to inaccurate results. Our solution to this problem makes use of both text and link information of a paper in question for similarity scores in that the comparison text of the paper is strengthened by adding that of papers related to it. More accurate similarity scores can be computed by reinforcing the input with the citations of the paper as well as the citations included within the paper. The efficacy of the proposed measure is validated through our extensive performance evaluation study which demonstrates a substantial gain.
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  • Shinil KIM, Seon YANG, Youngjoong KO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2560-2563
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we study how to automatically classify mathematical expressions written in MathML (Mathematical Markup Language). It is an essential preprocess to resolve analysis problems originated from multi-meaning mathematical symbols. We first define twelve equation classes based on chapter information of mathematics textbooks and then conduct various experiments. Experimental results show an accuracy of 94.75%, by employing the feature combination of tags, operators, strings, and “identifier & operator” bigram.
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  • Masashi SUGIYAMA, Makoto YAMADA
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2564-2567
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC) is a kernel-based statistical independence measure that can be computed very efficiently. However, it requires us to determine the kernel parameters heuristically because no objective model selection method is available. Least-squares mutual information (LSMI) is another statistical independence measure that is based on direct density-ratio estimation. Although LSMI is computationally more expensive than HSIC, LSMI is equipped with cross-validation, and thus the kernel parameter can be determined objectively. In this paper, we show that HSIC can actually be regarded as an approximation to LSMI, which allows us to utilize cross-validation of LSMI for determining kernel parameters in HSIC. Consequently, both computational efficiency and cross-validation can be achieved.
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  • Yun-Sik PARK, Sangmin LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2568-2571
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a novel voice activity detection (VAD) algorithm using global speech absence probability (GSAP) based on Teager energy (TE) for speech enhancement. The proposed method provides a better representation of GSAP, resulting in improved decision performance for speech and noise segments by the use of a TE operator which is employed to suppress the influence of noise signals. The performance of our approach is evaluated by objective tests under various environments, and it is found that the suggested method yields better results than conventional schemes.
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  • Chunyan LIANG, Lin YANG, Qingwei ZHAO, Yonghong YAN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2572-2576
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this letter, we adopt a new factor analysis of neighborhood-preserving embedding (NPE) for speaker verification. NPE aims at preserving the local neighborhood structure on the data and defines a low-dimensional speaker space called neighborhood-preserving embedding space. We compare the proposed method with the state-of-the-art total variability approach on the telephone-telephone core condition of the NIST 2008 Speaker Recognition Evaluation (SRE) dataset. The experimental results indicate that the proposed NPE method outperforms the total variability approach, providing up to 24% relative improvement.
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  • Shen WANG, Xiamu NIU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2577-2580
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Compressing a JPEG image twice will greatly decrease the values of some of its DCT coefficients. This effect can be easily detected by statistics methods. To defend this forensic method, we establish a model to evaluate the security and image quality influenced by the re-compression. Base on the model, an optimized adjustment of the DCT coefficients is achieved by Genetic Algorithm. Results show that the traces of double compression are removed while preserving image quality.
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  • Xue BAI, Yibiao ZHAO, Siwei LUO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2581-2584
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ground truth based image segmentation evaluation paradigm plays an important role in objective evaluation of segmentation algorithms. So far, many evaluation methods in terms of comparing clusterings in machine learning field have been developed. However, most traditional pairwise similarity measures, which only compare a machine generated clustering to a “true” clustering, have their limitations in some cases, e.g. when multiple ground truths are available for the same image. In this letter, we propose utilizing an information theoretic measure, named NJMI (Normalized Joint Mutual Information), to handle the situations which the pairwise measures can not deal with. We illustrate the effectiveness of NJMI for both unsupervised and supervised segmentation evaluation.
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  • Zhenfeng SHI, Liyang YU, Ahmed A. ABD EL-LATIF, Xiamu NIU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Computer Graphics
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2585-2588
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Incorporating insights from human visual perception into 3D object processing has become an important research field in computer graphics during the past decades. Many computational models for different applications have been proposed, such as mesh saliency, mesh roughness and mesh skeleton. In this letter, we present a novel Skeleton Modulated Topological Visual Perception Map (SMTPM) integrated with visual attention and visual masking mechanism. A new skeletonisation map is presented and used to modulate the weight of saliency and roughness. Inspired by salient viewpoint selection, a new Loop subdivision stencil decision based rapid viewpoint selection algorithm using our new visual perception is also proposed. Experimental results show that the SMTPM scheme can capture more richer visual perception information and our rapid viewpoint selection achieves high efficiency.
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  • Nakhoon BAEK, Hwanyong LEE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Computer Graphics
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2589-2592
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The need for the OpenGL-family of the 3D rendering API's are highly increasing, especially for graphical human-machine interfaces on various systems. In the case of safety-critical market for avionics, military, medical and automotive applications, OpenGL SC, the safety critical profile of the OpenGL standard plays the major role for graphical interfaces. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing OpenGL SC 3D graphics API for the environments with hardware-supported OpenGL 1.1 and its multi-texture extension facility, which is widely available on recent embedded systems. Our approach achieved the OpenGL SC features at the low development cost on the embedded systems and also on general personal computers. Our final result shows its compliance with the OpenGL SC standard specification. From the efficiency point of view, we measured its execution times for various application programs, to show a remarkable speed-up.
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  • Yunjung LEE, Pil Un KIM, Jin Ho CHO, Yongmin CHANG, Myoung Nam KIM
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Biological Engineering
    2012 Volume E95.D Issue 10 Pages 2593-2596
    Published: October 01, 2012
    Released: October 01, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, a single-channel adaptive noise canceller (SCANC) is proposed to enhance heart sounds during auscultation. Heart sounds provide important information about the condition of the heart, but other sounds interfere with heart sounds during auscultation. The adaptive noise canceller (ANC) is widely used to reduce noises from biomedical signals, but it is not suitable for enhancing auscultatory sounds acquired by a stethoscope. While the ANC needs two inputs, a stethoscope provides only one input. Other approaches, such as ECG gating and wavelet de-noising, are rather complex and difficult to implement as real-time systems. The proposed SCANC uses a single-channel input based on Heart Sound Inherency Indicator and reference generator. The architecture is simple, so it can be easily implemented in real-time systems. It was experimentally confirmed that the proposed SCANC is efficient for heart sound enhancement and is robust against the heart rate variations.
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