IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Volume E106.D, Issue 11
Displaying 1-18 of 18 articles from this issue
Regular Section
  • Rongcheng DONG, Taisuke IZUMI, Naoki KITAMURA, Yuichi SUDO, Toshimitsu ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamentals of Information Systems
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1762-1771
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The maximal independent set (MIS) problem is one of the most fundamental problems in the field of distributed computing. This paper focuses on the MIS problem with unreliable communication between processes in the system. We propose a relaxed notion of MIS, named almost MIS (ALMIS), and show that the loosely-stabilizing algorithm proposed in our previous work can achieve exponentially long holding time with logarithmic convergence time and space complexity regarding ALMIS, which cannot be achieved at the same time regarding MIS in our previous work.

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  • Atsushi MATSUO, Yudai SUZUKI, Ikko HAMAMURA, Shigeru YAMASHITA
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Fundamentals of Information Systems
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1772-1782
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE) algorithm is gaining interest for its potential use in near-term quantum devices. In the VQE algorithm, parameterized quantum circuits (PQCs) are employed to prepare quantum states, which are then utilized to compute the expectation value of a given Hamiltonian. Designing efficient PQCs is crucial for improving convergence speed. In this study, we introduce problem-specific PQCs tailored for optimization problems by dynamically generating PQCs that incorporate problem constraints. This approach reduces a search space by focusing on unitary transformations that benefit the VQE algorithm, and accelerate convergence. Our experimental results demonstrate that the convergence speed of our proposed PQCs outperforms state-of-the-art PQCs, highlighting the potential of problem-specific PQCs in optimization problems.

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  • Ullah IMDAD, Akram BEN AHMED, Kazuei HIRONAKA, Kensuke IIZUKA, Hidehar ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1783-1795
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    FPGA clusters that consist of multiple FPGA boards have been gaining interest in recent times. Massively parallel processing with a stand-alone heterogeneous FPGA cluster with SoC- style FPGAs and mid-scale FPGAs is promising with cost-performance benefit. Here, we propose such a heterogeneous FPGA cluster with FiC and M-KUBOS cluster. FiC consists of multiple boards, mounting middle scale Xilinx's FPGAs and DRAMs, which are tightly coupled with high-speed serial links. In addition, M-KUBOS boards are connected to FiC for ensuring high IO data transfer bandwidth. As an example of massively parallel processing, here we implement genomic pattern search. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has revolutionized biological system related research by its high-speed, scalable and massive throughput. To analyze the genomic data, short read mapping technique is used where short Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences are mapped relative to a known reference sequence. Although several pattern matching techniques are available, FM-index based pattern search is perfectly suitable for this task due to the fastest mapping from known indices. Since matching can be done in parallel for different data, the massively parallel computing which distributes data, executes in parallel and gathers the results can be applied. We also implement a data compression method where about 10 times reduction in data size is achieved. We found that a M-KUBOS board matches four FiC boards, and a system with six M-KUBOS boards and 24 FiC boards achieved 30 times faster than the software based implementation.

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  • Kenji NEMOTO, Hiroki MATSUTANI
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1796-1807
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Existing simple routing protocols (e.g., OSPF, RIP) have some disadvantages of being inflexible and prone to congestion due to the concentration of packets on particular routers. To address these issues, packet routing methods using machine learning have been proposed recently. Compared to these algorithms, machine learning based methods can choose a routing path intelligently by learning efficient routes. However, machine learning based methods have a disadvantage of training time overhead. We thus focus on a lightweight machine learning algorithm, OS-ELM (Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine), to reduce the training time. Although previous work on reinforcement learning using OS-ELM exists, it has a problem of low learning accuracy. In this paper, we propose OS-ELM QN (Q-Network) with a prioritized experience replay buffer to improve the learning performance. It is compared to a deep reinforcement learning based packet routing method using a network simulator. Experimental results show that introducing the experience replay buffer improves the learning performance. OS-ELM QN achieves a 2.33 times speedup than a DQN (Deep Q-Network) in terms of learning speed. Regarding the packet transfer latency, OS-ELM QN is comparable or slightly inferior to the DQN while they are better than OSPF in most cases since they can distribute congestions.

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  • Takashi YOKOTA, Kanemitsu OOTSU, Shun KOJIMA
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1808-1821
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    An interconnection network is an inevitable component for constructing parallel computers. It connects computation nodes so that the nodes can communicate with each other. As a parallel computation essentially requires inter-node communication according to a parallel algorithm, the interconnection network plays an important role in terms of communication performance. This paper focuses on the collective communication that is frequently performed in parallel computation and this paper addresses the Cup-Stacking method that is proposed in our preceding work. The key issues of the method are splitting a large packet into slices, re-shaping the slice, and stacking the slices, in a genetic algorithm (GA) manner. This paper discusses extending the Cup-Stacking method by introducing additional items (genes) and proposes the extended Cup-Stacking method. Furthermore, this paper places comprehensive discussions on the drawbacks and further optimization of the method. Evaluation results reveal the effectiveness of the extended method, where the proposed method achieves at most seven percent improvement in duration time over the former Cup-Stacking method.

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  • Jayson ROOK, Chi-Hao CHENG
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1822-1830
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    A multifunctional radar (MFR) with varying pulse sequences can change its signal characteristics and/or pattern, based on the presence of targets and to avoid being jammed. To take a countermeasure against an MFR, it is crucial for an electronic warfare (EW) system to be able to identify and separate a MFR's modes via analyzing intercepted radar signals, without a priori knowledge. In this article, two correlation-based methods, one taking the signal's order into account and another one ignoring the signal's order, are proposed and investigated for this task. The results demonstrate their great potential.

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  • Tania SULTANA, Sho KUROSAKI, Yutaka JITSUMATSU, Shigehide KUHARA, Jun' ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1831-1841
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    We assess how well the recently created MRI reconstruction technique, Multi-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (MRCNN), performs in the core medical vision field (classification). The primary goal of MRCNN is to identify the best k-space undersampling patterns to accelerate the MRI. In this study, we use the Figshare brain tumor dataset for MRI classification with 3064 T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) over three categories: meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumors. We apply MRCNN to the dataset, which is a method to reconstruct high-quality images from under-sampled k-space signals. Next, we employ the pre-trained VGG16 model, which is a Deep Neural Network (DNN) based image classifier to the MRCNN restored MRIs to classify the brain tumors. Our experiments showed that in the case of MRCNN restored data, the proposed brain tumor classifier achieved 92.79% classification accuracy for a 10% sampling rate, which is slightly higher than that of SRCNN, MoDL, and Zero-filling methods have 91.89%, 91.89%, and 90.98% respectively. Note that our classifier was trained using the dataset consisting of the images with full sampling and their labels, which can be regarded as a model of the usual human diagnostician. Hence our results would suggest MRCNN is useful for human diagnosis. In conclusion, MRCNN significantly enhances the accuracy of the brain tumor classification system based on the tumor location using under-sampled k-space signals.

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  • Zahra AZIZAH, Tomoya OHYAMA, Xiumin ZHAO, Yuichi OHKAWA, Takashi MITSU ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Educational Technology
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1842-1853
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Learning analytics (LA) has emerged as a technique for educational quality improvement in many learning contexts, including blended learning (BL) courses. Numerous studies show that students' academic performance is significantly impacted by their ability to engage in self-regulated learning (SRL). In this study, learning behaviors indicating SRL and motivation are elucidated during a BL course on second language learning. Online trace data of a mobile language learning application (m-learning app) is used as a part of BL implementation. The observed motivation were of two categories: high-level motivation (study in time, study again, and early learning) and low-level motivation (cramming and catch up). As a result, students who perform well tend to engage in high-level motivation. While low performance students tend to engage in clow-level motivation. Those findings are supported by regression models showing that study in time followed by early learning significantly influences the academic performance of BL courses, both in the spring and fall semesters. Using limited resource of m-learning app log data, this BL study could explain the overall BL performance.

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  • Ye TIAN, Mei HAN, Jinyi ZHANG
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1854-1867
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This paper mainly proposes a line segment detection method based on pseudo peak suppression and local Hough transform, which has good noise resistance and can solve the problems of short line segment missing detection, false detection, and oversegmentation. In addition, in response to the phenomenon of uneven development in nuclear emulsion tomographic images, this paper proposes an image preprocessing process that uses the “Difference of Gaussian” method to reduce noise and then uses the standard deviation of the gray value of each pixel to bundle and unify the gray value of each pixel, which can robustly obtain the linear features in these images. The tests on the actual dataset of nuclear emulsion tomographic images and the public YorkUrban dataset show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of convolutional neural network or vision in transformer-based event classification for alpha-decay events in nuclear emulsion. In particular, the line segment detection method in the proposed method achieves optimal results in both accuracy and processing speed, which also has strong generalization ability in high quality natural images.

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  • KuanChao CHU, Hideki NAKAYAMA
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1868-1880
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    We present an effective system for integrating generative zero-shot classification modules into a YOLO-like dense detector to detect novel objects. Most double-stage-based novel object detection methods are achieved by refining the classification output branch but cannot be applied to a dense detector. Our system utilizes two paths to inject knowledge of novel objects into a dense detector. One involves injecting the class confidence for novel classes from a classifier trained on data synthesized via a dual-step generator. This generator learns a mapping function between two feature spaces, resulting in better classification performance. The second path involves re-training the detector head with feature maps synthesized on different intensity levels. This approach significantly increases the predicted objectness for novel objects, which is a major challenge for a dense detector. We also introduce a stop-and-reload mechanism during re-training for optimizing across head layers to better learn synthesized features. Our method relaxes the constraint on the detector head architecture in the previous method and has markedly enhanced performance on the MSCOCO dataset.

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  • Shugang LIU, Yujie WANG, Qiangguo YU, Jie ZHAN, Hongli LIU, Jiangtao L ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1881-1890
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Driver fatigue detection has become crucial in vehicle safety technology. Achieving high accuracy and real-time performance in detecting driver fatigue is paramount. In this paper, we propose a novel driver fatigue detection algorithm based on dynamic tracking of Facial Eyes and Yawning using YOLOv7, named FEY-YOLOv7. The Coordinate Attention module is inserted into YOLOv7 to enhance its dynamic tracking accuracy by focusing on coordinate information. Additionally, a small target detection head is incorporated into the network architecture to promote the feature extraction ability of small facial targets such as eyes and mouth. In terms of compution, the YOLOv7 network architecture is significantly simplified to achieve high detection speed. Using the proposed PERYAWN algorithm, driver status is labeled and detected by four classes: open_eye, closed_eye, open_mouth, and closed_mouth. Furthermore, the Guided Image Filtering algorithm is employed to enhance image details. The proposed FEY-YOLOv7 is trained and validated on RGB-infrared datasets. The results show that FEY-YOLOv7 has achieved mAP of 0.983 and FPS of 101. This indicates that FEY-YOLOv7 is superior to state-of-the-art methods in accuracy and speed, providing an effective and practical solution for image-based driver fatigue detection.

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  • Xuemei FENG, Qing FANG, Kouichi KONNO, Zhiyi ZHANG, Katsutsugu MATSUYA ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer Graphics
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1891-1905
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In this study, we present a spherical style deformation algorithm to be applied on single component models that can deform the models with spherical style, while preserving the local details of the original models. Because 3D models have complex skeleton structures that consist of many components, the deformation around connections between each single component is complicated, especially preventing mesh self-intersections. To the best of our knowledge, there does not exist not only methods to achieve a spherical style in a 3D model consisting of multiple components but also methods suited to a single component. In this study, we focus on spherical style deformation of single component models. Accordingly, we propose a deformation method that transforms the input model with the spherical style, while preserving the local details of the input model. Specifically, we define an energy function that combines the as-rigid-as-possible (ARAP) method and spherical features. The spherical term is defined as 2-regularization on a linear feature; accordingly, the corresponding optimization can be solved efficiently. We also observed that the results of our deformation are dependent on the quality of the input mesh. For instance, when the input mesh consists of many obtuse triangles, the spherical style deformation method fails. To address this problem, we propose an optional deformation method based on convex hull proxy model as the complementary deformation method. Our proxy method constructs a proxy model of the input model and applies our deformation method to the proxy model to deform the input model by projection and interpolation. We have applied our proposed method to simple and complex shapes, compared our experimental results with the 3D geometric stylization method of normal-driven spherical shape analogies, and confirmed that our method successfully deforms models that are smooth, round, and curved. We also discuss the limitations and problems of our algorithm based on the experimental results.

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  • Kosetsu TSUKUDA, Keisuke ISHIDA, Masahiro HAMASAKI, Masataka GOTO
    Article type: PAPER
    Subject area: Music Information Processing
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1906-1915
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This paper describes a public web service called Kiite Cafe that lets users get together virtually to listen to music. When users listen to music on Kiite Cafe, their experiences are enhanced by two architectures: (i) visualization of each user's reactions, and (ii) selection of songs from users' favorite songs. These architectures enable users to feel social connection with others and the joy of introducing others to their favorite songs as if they were together listening to music in person. In addition, the architectures provide three user experiences: (1) motivation to react to played songs, (2) the opportunity to listen to a diverse range of songs, and (3) the opportunity to contribute as a curator. By analyzing the behavior logs of 2,399 Kiite Cafe users over a year, we quantitatively show that these user experiences can generate various effects (e.g., users react to a more diverse range of songs on Kiite Cafe than when listening alone). We also discuss how our proposed architectures can enrich music listening experiences with others.

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  • Lei LI, Hong-Jun ZHANG, Hang-Yu FAN, Zhe-Ming LU
    Article type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1916-1921
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Until today, digital image watermarking has not been large-scale used in the industry. The first reason is that the watermarking efficiency is low and the real-time performance cannot be satisfied. The second reason is that the watermarking scheme cannot cope with various attacks. To solve above problems, this paper presents a multi-domain based digital image watermarking scheme, where a fast DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) based watermarking method is proposed for synchronization correction and an IWT-DCT (Integer Wavelet Transform-Discrete Cosine Transform) based watermarking method is proposed for information embedding. The proposed scheme has high efficiency during embedding and extraction. Compared with five existing schemes, the robustness of our scheme is very strong and our scheme can cope with many common attacks and compound attacks, and thus can be used in wide application scenarios.

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  • Gyuyeong KIM
    Article type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1922-1925
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Modern distributed storage requires microsecond-scale tail latency, but the current coordinator-based quorum coordination causes a burdensome latency overhead. This paper presents Archon, a new quorum coordination architecture that supports low tail latency for microsecond-scale replicated storage. The key idea of Archon is to perform the quorum coordination in the network switch by leveraging the flexibility and capability of emerging programmable switch ASICs. Our in-network quorum coordination is based on the observation that the modern programmable switch provides nanosecond-scale processing delay and high flexibility simultaneously. To realize the idea, we design a custom switch data plane. We implement a Archon prototype on an Intel Tofino switch and conduct a series of testbed experiments. Our experimental results show that Archon can provide lower tail latency than the coordinator-based solution.

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  • Ann Jelyn TIEMPO, Yong-Jin JEONG
    Article type: LETTER
    Subject area: Dependable Computing
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1926-1929
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is gaining popularity because of their reconfigurability which brings in security concerns like inserting hardware trojan. Various detection methods to overcome this threat have been proposed but in the ASIC's supply chain and cannot directly apply to the FPGA application. In this paper, the authors aim to implement a structural feature-based detection method for detecting hardware trojan in a cell-level netlist, which is not well explored yet, where the nets are segmented into smaller groups based on their interconnection and further analyzed by looking at their structural similarities. Experiments show positive performance with an average detection rate of 95.41%, an average false alarm rate of 2.87% and average accuracy of 96.27%.

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  • Yu KASHIHARA, Takashi MATSUBARA
    Article type: LETTER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1930-1934
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The diffusion model has achieved success in generating and editing high-quality images because of its ability to produce fine details. Its superior generation ability has the potential to facilitate more detailed segmentation. This study presents a novel approach to segmentation tasks using an inverse heat dissipation model, a kind of diffusion-based models. The proposed method involves generating a mask that gradually shrinks to fit the shape of the desired segmentation region. We comprehensively evaluated the proposed method using multiple datasets under varying conditions. The results show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods and provides a more detailed segmentation.

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  • Fengchuan XU, Qiaoyue LI, Guilu ZHANG, Yasheng CHANG, Zixuan ZHENG
    Article type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2023 Volume E106.D Issue 11 Pages 1935-1938
    Published: November 01, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: November 01, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This letter presents a global feature-based method for evaluating the no reference quality of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) contrast-distorted images. Based on the characteristics of SEM images and the human visual system, the global features of SEM images are extracted as the score for evaluating image quality. In this letter, the texture information of SEM images is first extracted using a low-pass filter with orientation, and the amount of information in the texture part is calculated based on the entropy reflecting the complexity of the texture. The singular values with four scales of the original image are then calculated, and the amount of structural change between different scales is calculated and averaged. Finally, the amounts of texture information and structural change are pooled to generate the final quality score of the SEM image. Experimental results show that the method can effectively evaluate the quality of SEM contrast-distorted images.

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