Many recent efforts argue that organizational culture is the key of excellent organizational learning. This article discusses the “real" relationship between organizational culture and organizational learning. By analyzing questionnaire survey data, it was found that: (1) organizational culture merely had indirect influences over organizational learning, however, (2) there was a much more important factor in learning process, that is, a “Navigation Map in the organization." The Navigation Map forming is facilitated by the desirable organizational culture: especially the paradoxical culture which succeeds to be balanced between opposite features simultaneously.
Takahiro Fujimoto's 1999 book, The Evolution of a Manufacturing System at Toyota, is surveyed and its contents introduced to commemorate the book having been awarded the prestigious Japan Academy Prize for 2002.