The office research in environmental psychology that was inspired by the non-territorial office experiments of Allen and his colleagues in 1970, and undertaken since the 1980s, deemed privacy in the open office setting problematic; however, experiments by Allen showed improvements in privacy. Why was privacy not seen as a problem in Allen's experiments? The non-territorial office in Allen was not limited to being open; in fact, it also incorporated a free-seating arrangement. Further exploration of Allen's experiments shows that a free-seating arrangement not only enabled employees to move about the office at will but also facilitated the adjustment of their mutual interaction. As a result, it was thought that privacy had actually improved. In other words, extracting an open setting, which is only one aspect of a non-territorial office space, is insufficient, and thus, free-seating arrangement must also be considered. Doing so increases the possibility of significantly remedying privacy problems.
From 1992 to 1994, BSD which was UNIX developed at the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), found itself involved in a license-related lawsuit filed by AT&T. At around the same time, the GNU project, which developed a UNIX-like free software not infringing on the AT&T license, was nearing completion—the “jigsaw puzzle"—with the exception of the kernel. Linux, a free UNIX-style software kernel with open source code free from the AT&T license made its appearance as the desired kernel becoming the “last piece" of the puzzle. A UNIX-type operating system is an aggregate of single function programs called tools, which are easily substitutable. Under these conditions, the free software system, noted for being “UNIX running on a PC," was completed in a short span of time. Essential to the success of Linux was its miraculous release timing. It goes without saying that this phenomenon is unlikely to be repeated even under ideal conditions of it being free of charge and open source.
A cross table was created to classify 25 overseas subsidiaries of Japanese companies. They were classified under overseas subsidiaries with many expatriates and overseas subsidiaries with few expatriates, as well as overseas subsidiaries with sophisticated functions and overseas subsidiaries with non-sophisticated functions. From the results, it was evident that almost all overseas subsidiaries with sophisticated functions had many expatriates. Japanese companies are often singled out for their tendency to send many expatriates abroad in comparison to the multinational corporations of Europe and the USA. The sophisticated functions of those overseas subsidiaries of Japanese companies were one cause for this tendency.
“Free" and “open source" are not requirements for successful software development. The argument that “early and frequent upgrades" are one indicator of successful software development does not imply the necessity of users updating the source code but the importance that they function as testers and debuggers. In the development of Japan's non-open source, non-free shareware “Hidemaru Mail," the users perform the functions of testers and debuggers. It is evident from the case of Hidemaru Mail that early and frequent upgrades are neither result nor performance indicators, but rather the way to intrinsically motivate users so that they can function as testers and debuggers. In actuality, the developer of Hidemaru Mail motivates users to submit requests and reports more often by meticulously responding to almost all users' requests and reports and upgrading early and frequently. Existing studies are overly particular about whether the source code should be open, and lack the perspective of organizational theory about how developers should motivate users to function as testers and debuggers. While there is the definite possibility of motivating users through open source, this does not indicate that open source is a necessary condition. The necessary condition is to motivate as many users as possible to cooperate in the development. If this is accomplished, the development of software will succeed, regardless of it being free or open.