Do members of Japanese companies behave according to Takahashi's (1996a, 2013b) leaning on future principle? This paper attempts to directly validate this, focusing on organization members' decision to participate, that is, whether organization members continue to participate in the organization or leave the organization, and to clarify the underlying reasons behind the decision to participate from the viewpoint of the future parameter. This paper adopts Takahashi's (1996a) “perspective index” as a future parameter. Using data from the JPC Survey, an annual survey of around 9,000 people taken from 1992 to 2000, the perspective index can adequately explain job satisfaction and turnover candidates: Near-perfect linearity between perspective index and job satisfaction ratio/turnover candidate ratio. This paper also shows that as the perspective index rises, the correlation between job satisfaction and turnover candidates disappears. Only when the future parameter remains at a low level, we can observe the correlation between job satisfaction and turnover candidates in Japanese companies.
Changes in organizational identity have been a particular focus of discussion in research to date. Prior studies have noted that organizational identity changes through interactions with images from external sources and that this changes behavior in organizations. However, because it is unclear what agent is choosing a new organizational identity, the dynamism of the phenomena is not well understood. Thus, when considering changes in organizational identity, why a particular organizational identity is selected and a determination of whether there are changes are necessarily vague. This study asserts the importance of managers as agents of choice in understanding changes in organizational identity. Within organizations, a better understanding is required regarding the role of higher-level managers in an organizations hierarchy in the process of political negotiations and decision making, in which a certain organizational identity acquires legitimacy.
Collective strategy, which allows small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to take on orders that a single company with its limited technical resources cannot, does not function in practice. However, Kyoto Shisaku Net (literally, “Kyoto Prototyping Network”) is a group of companies that uses collective strategy to aggressively take on projects that other companies turn down for reasons such as “the specifications aren't finalized,” “there is no way to estimate the cost of this project,” and “common sense tells us that is an impossible request.” There are three reasons for the creation of this virtuous circle: 1) In the Kyoto Shisaku Net participation stage, member companies of the Net participate with the understanding that it is a place to practice the “five percent rule,” wherein companies devote five percent of their profit and time to new efforts, company growth, and opportunities for innovation. 2) In the prototyping stage, employees are motivated by participating in cutting-edge R&D, and the companies gain knowledge related to R&D. 3) After the prototyping stage, companies accumulate experience by taking on cutting-edge projects and can stop the vicious circle SMEs find themselves wherein they do not have the experience to win orders. In this manner, Kyoto Shisaku Net has created a virtuous circle mechanism that functions as a collective strategy by aggressively working on cutting-edge prototypes.
There are two types of innovation: technology innovation and design innovation. Each type has a positive effect on corporate performance. However, results of our analysis on the appearance, user friendliness, and technological functionality of cellular phones between 2005 and 2010 show that in the years 2005–2007, when TV functionality was introduced in cellular phones, cellular phone manufacturers sacrificed appearance instead of improving functionality. However, this issue was resolved in 2008–2010, and companies succeeded in simultaneously attaining appearance and user friendliness. In other words, it has become clear that companies in the Japanese market first tend to prioritize functionality through technology innovation than appearance (i.e., industrial design), and then later tend to simultaneously pursue both appearance and user friendliness through design innovation.