AUDIOLOGY JAPAN
Online ISSN : 1883-7301
Print ISSN : 0303-8106
ISSN-L : 0303-8106
Volume 35 , Issue 2
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Ryoji Kanayama, Masaru Aoyagi, Yoshinori Kim, Takeshi Beppu, Yoshio Ko ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 99-103
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tympanometry was used as an otological screening test for 3 years old children to detect secretory otitis media (SOM). Subjects were 1289 children and they underwent tympanometry in the health centers. Tympanograms were classified into 4 types (A, B, C1, C2) according to peak pressure. Type A, B, C1 and C2 tympanograms were found in 75.5%, 8.1%, 12.0% and 4.4% respectively.
    The children with type B and C2 tympanogram were diagnosed as SOM in 66.4% and 63.3% respectively by otologic examination, however children with type C1 tympanogram were diagnosed as SOM in lower percentage (43.8%) than children with type B and C2.
    The distribution of static compliance of type C1 and C2 tympanogram showed no significant difference between normal children and children with SOM.
    The result suggests that tympanometry is useful to detect SOM in 3 years old children screening, and appropriate criteria for tympanogram in the detection of SOM is types B and C2.
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  • Yutaka Katoh, Toshihide Tabata, Takao Samukawa, Naoko Nagai
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 104-111
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Between November 1990 and July 1991, the first to fourth pilot studies on otorhinolaryngologic examination in 3 years old children in Wakayama City were conducted. The children were selected for requiring examinations by questionnaires and by tympanometry (TM) at the health centers for further examination by otorhinolaryngologists.
    Among 1, 198 children eligible for screening, 669 were examined. The most frequently found disease during the pilot studies was impaction of cerumen, in 12.1% to 15.3% of all children. Otitis media with offusion (OME) was detected in about 10% of the children, but a sensorineural hearing impairment was not detected in any of the children.
    OME was found in 119 children, bilaterally in 53 and unilaterally in 66. It was noted that by reviewing the questionnaires and by whispered-voice test, bilateral cases were mostly detected. If we were to select the children requiring further examinations on the basis of the questionnaires alone, it was evident that 20.8% of children with bilateral impairment and 36.4% with unilateral disorders would be omitted. There results indicate that the use of TM is necessary for the examination of 3 years old children.
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  • Yoshisato Tanaka, Kimitaka Kaga, Hiroshi Ohshima, Keijiro Koga, Nobuko ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 112-119
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since October 1, 1990, when the Ministry of Welfare issued circular notes with regard to introducing auditory screening into the three-year-old-children health examinations at public health centers, many attempts have been made to establish a screening system throughout Japan. In Tokyo, we developed our own method for auditory screening including a questionnaire as well as an auditory test using six whispered words and a test for screening unilateral deafness using rubbing noises produced by index finger and thumb.
    For this purpose pilot studies were conducted twice during July, 1990 and March, 1991, in cooperation with several public health centers. Prior to the three-year-old-children health examinations at the public health centers, a questionnaire consisting of 19 items regarding past history and auditory behaviors in a daily life and letters explaining how to test hearing of a child at home using the above-mentioned auditory tests were sent to 618 parents having a three-year-old child. Otolaryngological examinations as well as tympanometry were performed in 613 out of the 618 children, and 42 of the 613 children were referred to special clinics for hearing-impaired children to receive further examinations. As a result of this study, a case with delayed development of speech due to hearing loss, three with unilateral hearing loss and 12 with serous otitis media were found. In addition, a statistical analysis of the obtained data made it possible to reduce the 19 items of the questionnaire to five. Following this pilot study the revised questionnaire and the letters explaining the auditory tests performed at home were sent to 928 parents who had a three-year-old child, and 781 answers were collected. These answers were classified according to criteria, and 26 cases were selected for further examinations. Eight of the 26 children were found to have a hearing loss caused by serous otitis media.
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  • Masaru Toshima, Toshimitsu Kobayashi, Masako Ishidoya, Tomonori Takasa ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 120-126
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Otological screening study consisted of tympanometry and questionairre was performed on 4, 503 3-year-old children in Sendai City. One thousand and sixty-four children (23.6%) were selected for further investigations due either to tympanometric abnormalities or suspected abnormality in hearing and/or speech. Five hundred and eighteen children, out of 627 (82.6%) selected as having tympanometric abnormalities, received consultations of otolaryngologists, and fifty-one percent of them were diagnosed as having secretory otitis media (SOM). On the other hand, two-thirds of examinees selected by questionairre were found to have abnormalities in hearing and/or speech.
    This new screening system has turned up two hundred and sixty-four (5.8%) SOM and four unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (0.09%). In 78.2% of SOM discovered in this screening system children did not have any complaints before the screening, therefore tympanometry seems indispensable to the system. These results suggest that our screening system is efficient to detect hearing or speech disorders in 3-year-old children.
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  • Taeko Muramoto, Yoshisato Tanaka, Hitoshi Yamane, Mari Oshio, Yoshimi ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 127-132
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Auditory screening test for 3-year-old children which had already been performed in Tokyo was evaluated by testing the older children with known diagnosis and with known audiogram. Fifty-five children, 20 with normal ears, 24 with secretory otitis media (SOM) and 11 with a sensori-neural hearing loss (SNL), were examined.
    Among the 5 questionnaires performed, three which may reflect hearing impairment were selected and the answers of “yes” were counted. The count was 0 in the children with normal ears. Two or 3 points were counted in the SNL group. However, the count scattered from 0 to 3 in the SOM group.
    Six whispered words were presented and the correct answers were counted. Five correct answers seemed to be appropriate to pass the screening because all normal children passed and 10 among 11 SNL failed.
    Responses to the finger rubbing noise were analysed in comparing with the averaged hearing thresholds of speech frequencies. Eighty-three responded to the test noise and 17 did not. Ninety-three percent of ears with the averaged threshold within 40dB responded, and 79% of ears over 40dB did not. The auditory screening system administered to the 3 years old children in Tokyo was considered to be appropriate.
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  • Hideji Okuno, Atsushi Komatsuzaki
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 133-137
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hearing assessment was made on employees working for a major insurance company in Tokyo. The employees were tested with an audiometer as a part of general physical examination in 1991. The test results, abnormal findings and repeated testings have been reviewed to evaluated the validity and efficacy of this hearing test program.
    The government law requires that hearing test should be performed on every employee of industry who is not exposed to noise at work. The law effective in 1991 was intended not only for detection of hearing loss in these subjects, but also for undesirable environment for hearing conservation. It was suggested, based on the hearing survey performed, that better methods need to be developed in order to enhance validity and reliability of the test results. However, a conductive hearing loss and various kinds of hearing loss were identified in these employees who were tested in this program. Follow up test and continued survey seemed utmost important to learn the progress of individual with hearing loss and aged factor associated with hearing loss.
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  • Shinjiro Onishi, Hiroshi Miyagawa, Shizuo Tamura
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 138-142
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The screening audiometry was added to the routine health check up program for the employees of the ages at 35 years, 40 and the higher ages by the recommendation of the revised Labor Safety and Health Act issued in 1989. The screening audiometries were performed to the employees of male and female, 9161 in total, from April to December, 1990. The screening tones were 1000Hz at 30dB, and 4000Hz at 40dB of right and left, respectively.
    The refer rates were 20.1% for male and 24.2% for female, and those values were unexpectedly too high. It was suspected that the prominent high refer rates at 1000Hz of right, left and the both might include the false positive responses due to the inexperience of the subjects to the test procedure, and the high ambient noise of the test circumstances.
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  • Hiroyuki Zusho, Yoshito Okamoto, Hitome Kobayashi
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 143-148
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Labor Ministry revised the issues for the general health examination in October, 1989 since the former health examination became unable to cope with remarkable changes in the recent work environment.
    In the revised issue, a hearing screening test using 1kHz and 4kHz was made compulsory.
    More than two years have passed since this test was implemented, and the test is being place on right track, albeit with some problems. In this paper we report the following items with respect to the present status and problems of this test on the basis of national statistics of the results of this test and surveys on the results of individual examination.
    (1) Results of screening test for hearing.
    (2) Present situation and problems of measures after test.
    (3) Occurrence of noise-induced deafness.
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  • Kazumasa Fukuyo, Atsushi Takesue, Toshifumi Sakata, Morimichi Miyagi, ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 149-153
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    “Audiometry” using audiometer is now mandatory by law in general medical examination. There are a number of problems to solve in carrying out this “audiometry”. One of such problems is an improvement of the accuracy of screening audiometry in the field of auditory medicine.
    In the present study, the problems of “audiometry” in general medical examination have been evaluated from the viewpoint of social medicine.
    “Audiometry” has been performed in two companies, and several problems with “audiometry” were found out from the analysis of the results and from experience. Above all, low level of knowledge on the significance of “audiometry” became an issue.
    To cope with the problems, we concluded that the enlightenment of the significance of “audiometry” and education on health are very important.
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  • Tadahiko Ino, Ken Okamoto, Kikuko Waki, Shigeo Ogawa, Hiroyuki Zusho
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 154-160
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new system for detection of workers with a hearing loss have been developed since October 1989. We studied whether the screening methods exhibit satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. The rate of positive findings in screening test ranged from 7.3% (N=4, 240ears) to 8.4% (5, 198ears). The rate of correct positive detection of a hearing impairments was 5.9% (252/4, 240ears), which indicates a rather poor specificity. The rate of false positive was 32% in case of screening tone of 4000Hz, and 46% in 1000Hz respectively. In 25% of positive findings at the first screening, no positive findings was detected again at the second screening.
    With the high rate of false positives and the poor test-retest reliability, the hearing screening is considered inadequate, at least with the methods of workplace audiometry presently available. Testing must be performed in the appropriately quiet suuroundings, which is sometimes difficult to achieve in a industrial plant. So it is reccommended to use a good soundproof booth. The audiometric equipment must be regularly calibrated and the examiners should appropriately be trained.
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  • Miyako Nakamura, Mikako Masuda, Yukiko Kobayashi, Shigeru Arai, Hirosh ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 161-166
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We performed the hearing test in 41, 325 taxi drivers who have the general health examination at in 1990 were analyzed. Positive finding in the selected hearing test was 3.7% in 1000Hz and 10.9% in 4000Hz. A rate of coincidence with the pure tone hearing test was 90.4% and 79.8% respectively.
    Although we recommend to visit our clinic for 5, 171 individuals (12.5%), only 342 individuals (6.6%) actually received our test. The pure tone hearing test of 594 ears out of 342 individuals showed the decrease of hearing level in 2000Hz, 4000Hz and 8000Hz without remarkable difference in both ears and slight c5 dip like impairment starting their thirties.
    We were unable to clarify the correlation between hearing loss and years of working.
    The selective hearing test does not correlate to any items in their general health examination except for blood sugar and liver functional test in their fifties.
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  • Yoshito Okamoto, Tamiki Daida, Ikuko Nosaka, Takako Namatame, Hiroyuki ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 167-172
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Of 2, 396 cases recognized as eligible for Worker's Accident Compensation Insurance for noise-induced deafness at the Kanto Rosai Hospital in the past 25 years, 2, 168 cases who received medical examination during 11 years from 1979 to 1990 were studied as to the age distribution at the time of recognition, number of years worked under noisy workshop and grade of impairment (rank of compensation). The results obtained are as follows.
    1. As for the age at the time of recognition 96% of the total persons were in their 50s and 60s. The increase and decrease in the number of cases recognized during one year was related to the number of recognized cases in their 50s.
    2. As for the number of years worked under noisy workshop, the proportion of years worked for 30 years or less that accounted for 61% decreased slowly, and on the whole, 31 to 40 years worked accouted for 78%.
    3. As for the grade of impairment, cases with rank 10 or above accoused for 60% or more up to 1981, but the majority cases were mild after 1982.
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  • Hirofumi Harada, Kimio Shiraishi, Toshihiko Kato, Toyoji Soda
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 173-177
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    During the periods of 1988 to 1990, 20 cases of acute acoustic trauma of Self Defense Force Officials were treated. Several factors in regard to initial hearing loss and recovery were examined. The initial hearing loss of pure-tone average (500-1000-2000Hz) was mild when the ears were protected. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in recovery rate between patients treated within 14 days and the patients had no treatment during the first 14 days.
    The following conclusions were obtained:
    1. The risk of hearing damage could be reduced by effective hearing protectors.
    2. Patients who received early treatment had significant recovery.
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  • Tsunemasa Satoh, Naohisa Iizuka, Katsuhiro Shimoda, Hiroyuki Fujita, T ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 178-186
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the past 10 years, there have been 108 cases of acute hearing disorders resulting from noise encountered in civic life. Some interesting cases excluding 71 cases with a hearing loss induced by exposure to discotheque sound were reported. There cases were classified into the following groups.
    1) Hearing disorder occurred during they played Pachinko games (5 cases).
    2) Hearing disorder occurred during test-firing with pistols (4 cases).
    3) Hearing disorder occurred during sleep when headphones were worn (8 cases).
    4) Infantile hearing disorder occurred during the patient played with a doll having a whistle (1 case).
    5) Infantile hearing disorder occurred during practice of jazz dance (1 case).
    Each of these cases showed specificity in hearing findings. We discussed causative factors of hearing disorder and stressed the necessity of socio-medical education to prevent hearing impairment in civic life. It is of prime importance that people should be educated to recognize that excessive sound may cause a hearing impairment.
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  • Keiji Matsuda, Yasuaki Usisako, Atsushi Haruta, Tetsuya Tono, Yuichiro ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 187-192
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have investigated the changes of hearing threshold levels in 24 individuals who work in the rotary press room of a local daily newspaper company. They were exposed to the noise at the sound level ranging from 80 to 100dB A for 5 hours every day. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained annually from 1983 to 1991. Twentyone out of 24 individuals showed minimal threshold changes, which were apparently comparable to those due to aging. In the remaining 3 individuals, c5 dip was developed at various onset during this period. Deferences in the depth of c5 dip between the left and right ears and fluctuation of 4 and 8kHz thresholds suggested that inner ear damages were still in progress in the 3 cases with c5 dip.
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  • Yasuhiro Tsuboi, Yasuaki Ushisako, Atsushi Haruta, Hiroto Ohsako, Masa ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 193-198
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Inspite of rapid increase of the “noise-evvironment” in our society, systematic studies of recent cases with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are insufficient. Clinicostatistical study for NIHL was attempted to analyze 316 NIHL patients (286 male and 29 female, 6-75 years of age) from 1977 to 1990.
    The number of NIHL patients in result, especially older patients above 60 years of age, tended to gradually increase year after year. This tendency appeared to be associated with a higher incidence of mild NIHL. Furthermore, It was a notable fact that patients with NIHL by noise exposure without self awareness increased in number.
    Some unconcious environmetal noise exposures in our recent life style might be involved in the cause of NIHL.
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  • Takanobu Kunihiro, Toshiaki O-Uchi, Hiroyasu Mashino, Yasuhiro Inoue, ...
    1992 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 199-207
    Published: April 30, 1992
    Released: April 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In 14 patients (male: 5, female: 9) with acute acoustic impairment, ranging from 17 to 38 years old (mean, 27.1 years) in age, the most common symptom was tinnitus in all cases (all 18 ears), followed by hearing loss in 9 cases (10 ears), aural fullness in 6 cases (6 ears) and autophonia in 2 cases (2 ears). Transient dizziness was seen in 2 cases. It was most noticeable in this investigation that in 5 cases these symptoms had appeared after the concerts at a certain multipurpose indoor stadium. As far as we know, these cases have not been reported in the Japanese literature. It was also noted that the low tone-impaired type of audiogram, which has been reported to be infrequent in this clinical entity, was most frequently (6 cases) seen in this series. We also paid attention to the fact that tinnitus tended to remain even in the ears in which hearing recovered to the normal range.
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