The objective of this study was to review the current evidence on the effectiveness of early diagnosis/ early intervention after a local government-based newborn hearing screening (NHS) in Japan, as compared to USA, etc. A search of the Japanese database of CiNii and Japan Medical Abstracts was conducted using the search algorithm of [(hearing impaired children OR deaf OR otorhinolaryngology) and early-intervention] for reports published from 1900 through 2013, and 243 studies were identified. The themes of the studies have changed sequentially from diagnosis of infant hearing, intervention for double-disabled children, cochlear implants and NHS during the period. Approximately NHS tests were carried out in 60% of Japan obstetrics and maternity facilities in the 2006 survey, and it was clear that early diagnosis and early intervention were carried out. On the other hand, there is a lack of high-quality evidence to suggest that infants covered by NHS may show better language development in comparison to infants that have not undergone NHS. Because a health care examination program of the infants has been implemented in Japan, the follow-up rate was high after NHS as compared to the case in the USA. Our findings emphasize the importance of continued implementation of the hearing health care program for all infants, and also of the follow-up program after NHS.
The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate the effect of accent on word discrimination between young and older adults. The test stimuli were Japanese words spoken in two different accent conditions: standard accent and misplaced accent. The stimuli were presented to the subjects at the appropriate sound level (40dBSL) and low sound level (20dBSL) through a headphone. The results revealed significant differences for each of the conditions of aging, presented sound level, and accent. In particular, the older adults showed lower percentages of correct answers in the low sound level condition and misplaced accent condition. Furthermore, the scores in the older adults were not correlated with the personal property characteristics, age, hearing ability or speech intelligibility. In contrast, in the young adults the percentage of correct answers was higher in the low sound level condition, and significantly declined in the misplaced accent condition. It was thought that there was differential use of prosodic information in word discrimination between young and older adults. Thus, we should consider the age while examining prosodic information processing.
To assess whether or not uncomfortable loudness levels (UCLs) can be used to evaluate hyperacusis, patients with unilateral acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss (ALHL) were examined by the conventional UCL method (UCLC) and modified UCL method (UCLM), and the relationship with hyperacusis was examined. At UCLC, intermittent pure tone was loaded and was increased with five dB per two seconds. On the other hand, at UCLM, continuous pure tone was loaded two seconds with three seconds soundless interval between five dB increases. At the first medical examination, subjects with hyperacusis exhibited a significantly lower UCLM at 500 Hz and 1000 Hz in their healthy ear. Comparison of the UCLs during occasions with and without hyperacusis throughout the examination period revealed that the UCLC and UCLM were lower in both the healthy and hearing-impaired ears during episodes of hyperacusis. The largest change was seen in the UCLM at 500 Hz in the healthy ear. Reconsideration of how and on what side to present the acoustic sounds for testing may help in improving the detection of hyperacusis.
To clarify the communication strategies of the hearing impaired, the answers of 482 patients with hearing loss to “The Questionnaire on Hearing 2002” were analyzed. The results suggested following tendencies; 1. older patients with mild hearing loss rarely use communication strategies; 2. older patients often use “demanding-type” strategies, while younger patients use “self-help type” strategies; 3. Subjective hardness of hearing or psychosociological effects of hearing loss seem to promote the use of communication strategies. Professional intervention to encourage the use of communication strategies seems important.
We developed a Japanese version of Khalfa's hyperacusis questionnaire, and carried out a survey of 216 university students. The mean total score was 16.9 (SD 11.6), and the cutoff score to identify hyperacusis was approximately 40. According to exploratory factor analysis, the scale had a three-factor-structure consisting of “difficulty in selective listening”, “sensitivity and avoidance” and “interaction with emotions”. In addition, the three risk factors of “symptoms of anxiety”, “sleep disorder” and “past history of the head and neck surgery” were found to be significantly correlated with the hyperacusis scores, while “symptoms of depression”, “history of facial nerve paralysis”, “gender” and “past history of the hearing impairment” exerted no significant influence. These results show the importance of paying adequate attention to complications such as anxiety disorder, sleep disorder and follow-up after the head and neck surgery in the medical treatment of patients with hyperacusis.
We carried out neural response telemetry (NRT) using an electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) in children with genetic hearing loss having cochlear implants. The NRT success rate, threshold, and slope of amplitude growth were compared among the 3 groups with GJB2 gene mutation (5 children), CDH23 gene mutation (3 children), and undetected gene mutations (4 children). There were no significant differences in the NRT threshold among the 3 groups. Children with GJB2 gene and CDH23 gene mutations showed high values of the slope of amplitude growth as compared to those with undetected gene mutations. As a result, we speculated that the slope of amplitude growth on NRT might represent the state of preservation of the spiral ganglion. We consider that it is necessary to evaluate the results of NRT in a more detailed manner in dependent depending on the cochlear pathogenesis evaluated by genetic testing of hearing loss.
This study was designed to study the mood in interpretation of the hearing children of deaf adults (CODA) and their deaf parents. Twenty-one CODA and their 19 parents were enrolled in this study. We used a revised Multiple Mood Scale. Factor analysis was used for the data analysis. The results of evaluation by the Multiple Mood Scale demonstrated that the mood in interpretation of the CODA and their parents consisted of five factors: satisfaction, confusion, dissatisfaction, consideration, leisurely. The scores for confusion and dissatisfaction were lower during adulthood of the CODA than those at the time of adolescence. On the other hand, while the scores for satisfaction and leisurely were higher during adulthood of the CODA than during adolescence, the scores for satisfaction were lower than those for the other factors during both adolescence and adulthood. It was thought that this was a unique tendency of CODA. Scores for satisfaction of deaf parents were high during both adolescence and adulthood of the CODA.