Background:Despite the drastic advances in clinical care for patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), female STEMI patients have higher in-hospital mortality rates than male patients. This study assessed the influence of sex on in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.
Methods and Results:From October 2015 to June 2018, 2,491 consecutive STEMI patients (23.9% female) who presented to hospital in the 24 h after symptom onset were analyzed. The female patients were 9 years older and less frequently had diabetes, smoking and prior MI than male patients. Pre-hospital managements, including prehospital 12-lead electrocardiography, and symptom-to-door time were similar between the sexes. A door-to-device time ≤90 min was achieved in 61.3% of female cases and in 65.0% of male cases (P=0.13). Reperfusion therapy was provided to 94.6% of female and 97.6% of male patients (P<0.001). In-hospital mortality rate was not significantly different between female and male patients (6.6% vs. 7.8%, P=0.37). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, female sex itself was not associated with in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.52; 95% CI: 0.67–3.47, P=0.32).
Conclusions:There was no sex discrepancy in the in-hospital mortality of STEMI patients in this study. Guideline-based treatment, such as advanced pre-hospital management and a high use of reperfusion therapy might have attenuated the sex-related differences in the in-hospital mortality.
Background:The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical ability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score to identify acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
Methods and Results:We studied 180 consecutive survivors of OHCA who underwent immediate non-contrast computed tomography (CT) and coronary angiography. Seventy-one patients had ST elevation or left bundle branch block (LBBB; group 1) and 109 patients did not have ST elevation or LBBB (group 2) on post-resuscitation electrocardiogram (ECG). CAC score was significantly higher in AMI compared with non-AMI in groups 1 and 2. The optimal cut-off of CAC score to identify AMI was 11.5 (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 71%) in group 1, and 27.4 (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 76%) in group 2. On multivariate analysis, CAC score was the strongest predictive marker of AMI (OR, 10.91; 95% CI: 6.00–25.97). In addition, CAC score was an independent predictor of 30-day survival (OR, 0.38; 95% CI: 0.15–0.95).
Conclusions:Evaluation of CAC is a useful method to identify AMI in survivors of OHCA, regardless of ST changes on post-resuscitation ECG.
Background:The ratio of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) secretion from the heart to peripheral NT-proBNP remains unknown in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods and Results:We measured plasma NT-proBNP in the aortic root (AO; NT-proBNPAO) and in the coronary sinus (CS; NT-proBNPCS) in 544 patients. Patients were classified into 6 categories based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): G1, n=44, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; G2, n=221, 60≤eGFR<90 mL/min/1.73 m2; G3a, n=132, 45≤eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2; G3b, n=77, 30≤eGFR<45 mL/min/1.73 m2; G4, n=34, 15≤eGFR<30 mL/min/1.73 m2; and G5, n=36, eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2. In non-CKD patients, hemodynamics but not eGFR were independent predictors of log NT-proBNP. In CKD patients, eGFR and hemodynamics were independent predictors of log NT-proBNP. The ratio of NT-proBNP secretion from the heart to NT-proBNPAOsignificantly decreased with decreasing eGFR in 6 groups (P<0.0001): G1, 67±38%; G2, 50±24%; G3a, 40±21%; G3b, 30±16%; G4, 14.8±7.9%; and G5, 3.5±2.4%, respectively.
Conclusions:eGFR contributes to the value of NT-proBNP for prediction of hemodynamic overload in CKD patients but not in non-CKD patients, and the ratio of NT-proBNP secretion from the heart to peripheral NT-proBNP is markedly decreased in CKD patients, especially those with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Background:We investigated the association between left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and vortex flow (VF), and whether cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response can be predicted using VF mapping (VFM) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Methods and Results:Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data for 20 patients with heart failure (HF) with LVEF ≥40% and 25 patients with DCM with LVEF <40%, scheduled for CRT, were retrospectively analyzed. The maximum VF (MVF) on short-axis, long-axis and 4-chamber LV cine imaging were calculated using VFM. Summed MVF was used as a representative value for each case and was significantly greater for patients with DCM than for patients with HF with LVEF ≥40% (25.2±19.2% vs. 12.1±15.4%, P<0.005). Summed MVF was significantly greater for CRT responders (n=12, 35.8±22.7%) than for non-responders (n=13, 15.8±8.7%, P=0.04) during the mean follow-up period of 38.4 months after CRT. Patients with summed MVF ≥31.3% had a significantly higher major adverse cardiac event-free rate than those with MVF <31.3% (log-rank=4.51, P<0.05).
Conclusions:On VFM analysis, LV VF interrupted efficient ejection in HF. Summed MVF can predict CRT response in DCM.
Background:Circulatory diseases now comprise a larger share of medical expenses, accounting for 19.7% (2016) of total national health expenditure. Medical economics is an area of study encompassing medical science and economics that deals with a wide variety of topics and issues related to the medical and health-care field.
Methods and Results:In order to discuss the relationship between medical costs and research activities, this article conducted a correlation analysis of the ratio of national health expenditures to gross domestic product (GDP) and the number of medical economics articles in the circulatory field. A comparison of the ratios of national health expenditure and of the number of medical economics articles indicates that the number of articles increased as the ratio of the expenditure increased and vice versa with a slight time lag (r2=0.964, P<0.01). Medical economics will explore deeply the subjects related to the clinical and economy in the circulatory field in the future, with due consideration of these diverse backgrounds.
Conclusions:Lively and in-depth future-oriented discussions of medical economics topics will facilitate the construction of valuable evidence that will help many personnel engaged in medical sites to gain new insights into clinical services, in addition to promoting the development of the healthcare system.
Background:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I) have beneficial cardiovascular effects, including reduction in hospitalization for heart failure (HF). The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin compared with standard diabetes treatment in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
Methods and Results:This is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison study designed to evaluate the effects of canagliflozin on fluid retention and cardiac function in T2DM patients with HFpEF. Eligible participants are patients aged ≥65 years with insufficient glycemic control. Qualified patients will be randomly assigned to treatment with 100 mg of canagliflozin or standard diabetic treatment other than SGLT2-I; both groups will be treated for 24 weeks. The primary endpoints are changes in body weight as an indicator of fluid retention and plasma brain natriuretic peptide as an indicator of cardiac function. The secondary endpoints include cardiovascular event rates, changes in the dose of loop diuretics, echocardiographic left ventricular function, and nutritional status.
Conclusions:This study is expected to provide valuable findings regarding the mechanisms of canagliflozin on cardiac function and a potential new therapeutic approach for HFpEF. (UMIN000028668 and jRCTs051180030)