Circulation Reports
Online ISSN : 2434-0790
Volume 2 , Issue 1
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
Reviews
  • Hiroto Utsunomiya, Yasuki Kihara
    Type: REVIEW
    2020 Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 1-9
    Published: January 10, 2020
    Released: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: November 29, 2019
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    Three-dimensional echocardiography is one of the most promising methods for the diagnosis of valvular heart disease, and recently has become an essential clinical tool owing to the continued development of real-time transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) technology. And now an era of renewed interest and enthusiasm surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of valvular heart disease has come, which is driven by emerging trans-catheter procedures. Nonetheless, little or no attention has been given to the treatment of tricuspid regurgitation (TR). The application of 3D-TEE is useful for simultaneous visualization of all 3 leaflets in order to grasp the whole picture of the tricuspid valve (TV; “en face” view). The implications of 3-D assessment of TV annulus, leaflets, and morphology involve an improved understanding of both the mechanics and treatment of TR. This method has been useful for surgical management, including accurate measurement of tricuspid annular diameter and prediction of the post-surgical outcome. Moreover, this method may be indispensable for detailed and comprehensive evaluation of the TV in patients with TR who are candidates for trans-catheter tricuspid procedures. In addition, color Doppler 3D-TEE has been valuable to identify the location of the regurgitant orifice and the severity of the TR. It is now clear that this method will enhance the diagnosis and management of TR patients.

  • Naotsugu Iwakami, Toshiyuki Nagai, Toshiaki A. Furukawa, Kunihiro Nish ...
    Type: REVIEW
    2020 Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 10-16
    Published: January 10, 2020
    Released: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 05, 2019
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    Prediction models are combinations of predictors to assess the risks of specific endpoints such as the presence or prognosis of a disease. Many novel predictors have been developed, modelling techniques have been evolving, and prediction models are currently abundant in the medical literature, especially in cardiovascular medicine, but evidence is still lacking regarding how to use them. Recent methodological advances in systematic reviews and meta-analysis have enabled systematic evaluation of prediction model studies and quantitative analysis to identify determinants of model performance. Knowing what is critical to model performance, under what circumstances model performance remains adequate, and when a model might require further adjustment and improvement will facilitate effective utilization of prediction models and will enhance diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in clinical practice. In this review article, we provide a current methodological overview of the attempts to implement evidence-based utilization of prognostic prediction models for all potential model users, including patients and their families, health-care providers, administrators, researchers, guideline developers and policy makers.

Original Articles
Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
  • Jun Oikawa, Hidehira Fukaya, Junya Ako, Koichi Nakao, Yukio Ozaki, Kaz ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Arrhythmia/Electrophysiology
    2020 Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 17-23
    Published: January 10, 2020
    Released: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2019
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    Background:Lethal arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) are common complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Predictors of in-hospital VT/VF after AMI, however, have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we sought to elucidate the predictors of in-hospital VT/VF events after AMI in the Japanese registry of acute Myocardial INfarction diagnosed by Universal dEfiniTion (J-MINUET).

    Methods and Results:In-hospital VT/VF was defined as a hemodynamically unstable VT or VF in the first week of hospitalization, on which the patients were classified as the VT/VF group. Of the patients in the J-MINUET study, 3,175 were finally enrolled in this study. A total of 114 patients had VT/VF. On multivariate logistic analysis, maximum creatine kinase >3,000 IU/L (adjusted OR, 1.67; 95% CI: 1.085–2.572; P=0.02), Killip class III or IV (adjusted OR, 8.93; 95% CI: 5.668–14.082; P<0.0001), initial Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 0 or 1 (adjusted OR, 1.67; 95% CI: 1.035–2.709; P=0.03), and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD; adjusted OR, 1.80; 95% CI: 1.105–2.938; P=0.02) were identified as independent predictors for in-hospital VT/VF.

    Conclusions:From the J-MINUET study, extensive myocardial damage, cardiogenic shock, lower grade initial TIMI flow on coronary angiography, and concomitant CKD were independent predictors of in-hospital VT/VF after AMI.

Epidemiology
  • Shingo Nakayama, Michihiro Satoh, Hirohito Metoki, Takahisa Murakami, ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Epidemiology
    2020 Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 24-32
    Published: January 10, 2020
    Released: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 11, 2019
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    Supplementary material

    Background:N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is known to increase in heart failure patients. Given that no reports have described the association between NT-proBNP and chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence in Asian populations, we investigated this association in the Japanese population.

    Methods and Results:We followed up 867 participants without CKD from the general population of Ohasama, Japan. We defined CKD as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2and/or proteinuria. In accordance with previous studies, the participants were classified into 4 groups according to NT-proBNP level (<30.0, 30.0–54.9, 55.0–124.9, and ≥125.0 pg/mL). The Cox model was applied to assess adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for CKD incidence after full adjustment including baseline eGFR. Participant mean age was 59.1 years, and 587 (67.7%) were women. During the mean follow-up period of 9.7 years, 177 participants developed CKD. When the group with NT-proBNP <30.0 pg/mL was used as the reference, adjusted HR for CKD incidence in the 30.0–54.9, 55.0–124.9, and ≥125.0 pg/mL groups were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.90–2.01), 1.25 (95% CI: 0.81–1.92), and 1.83 (95% CI: 1.05–3.18), respectively.

    Conclusions:NT-proBNP can be significantly predictive for CKD incidence in Asian populations.

Health Services and Outcomes Research
  • Khung Keong Yeo, Hean-Yee Ong, Terrance Chua, Zheng Jie Lim, Jonathan ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Health Services and Outcomes Research
    2020 Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 33-43
    Published: January 10, 2020
    Released: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2019
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    Supplementary material

    Background:Real world data on clinical outcomes and quality of care for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are fragmented. We describe the rationale and design of the Singapore Cardiovascular Longitudinal Outcomes Database (SingCLOUD).

    Methods and Results:We designed a health data grid to integrate clinical, administrative, laboratory, procedural, prescription and financial data from all public-funded hospitals and primary care clinics, which provide 80% of health care in Singapore. Here, we explain our approach to harmonize real-world data from diverse electronic medical and non-medical platforms to develop a robust and longitudinal dataset. We present pilot data on patients with myocardial infarction (MI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2012 and 2014. The initial data set had 53,395 patients. Of these, 35,203 had CAD confirmed on coronary angiography, of whom 21,521 had PCI. Eventually, limiting to 2012–2014, 3,819 patients had MI with PCI, while 5,989 had MI. Compared with the quality improvement registry, Singapore Cardiac Data Bank, which had 189 fields for analysis, the SingCLOUD platform generated an additional 313 additional data fields, and was able to identify an additional 250 heart failure events, 664 major adverse cardiovascular events at 2 years, and low-density lipoprotein levels to 1 year for 3,747 patients.

    Conclusions:By integrating multiple incongruent data sources, SINGCLOUD enables in-depth analysis of real-world cardiovascular “big data”.

  • Mika Watanabe, Kihei Yoneyama, Michikazu Nakai, Koshiro Kanaoka, Satos ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Health Services and Outcomes Research
    2020 Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 44-50
    Published: January 10, 2020
    Released: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 13, 2019
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    Background:This study examined the influence of board-certified cardiologist characteristics on the in-hospital mortality of patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Methods and Results:Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 from a nationwide database of acute care hospitals in Japan. Overall, there were 1,422,703 patients, of whom 883,746 were analyzed. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. The association between board-certified cardiologist characteristics and in-hospital mortality was estimated using multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression modeling. Median age of cardiologists in a hospital was not related to in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.003; 95% CI: 0.998–1.008, P=0.316), but a greater cardiologist age range was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.992; 95% CI: 0.988–0.995 per 1-unit increment in age range, P<0.001). Meanwhile, the average years of experience of the board-certified cardiologists in a hospital was not associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.002; 95% CI: 0.996–1.007, P=0.525), but a greater range of years of experience was (OR, 0.986; 95% CI: 0.983–0.990 per 1-unit increment in range of years of experience, P<0.001).

    Conclusions:Median board-certified cardiologist age/experience at an institution is not related to in-hospital mortality, but a greater range in age/experience is associated with a lower risk of mortality.

Heart Failure
  • Mayu Yazaki, Takeru Nabeta, Takayuki Inomata, Kenji Maemura, Takumi Oo ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Heart Failure
    2020 Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 51-59
    Published: January 10, 2020
    Released: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 14, 2019
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    Background:In patients with heart failure (HF), discontinued medical therapy because of adverse events (AE) is associated with high mortality. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have a lower risk of HF, but AE sometimes occur with the introduction of SGLT2i. In order to use SGLT2i safely in patients with HF, we investigated factors associated with AE following the introduction of SGLT2i.

    Methods and Results:AE were defined as hypotension or an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL by the fifth day after SGLT2i introduction. Sixty-four hospitalized patients with HF and T2DM treated with an SGLT2i were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with AE (n=13, 20.3%) and without (n=51, 79.7%). On logistic regression analysis, female sex, hemoglobin ≥15.2 g/dL, serum creatinine ≥1.05 mg/dL, and cardiac index on echocardiography ≤2.15 L/min/m2, were significantly associated with AE. A scoring system was constructed to predict AE according to significant variables (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.83; P<0.001) and the cut-off point was 2 points.

    Conclusions:Female sex, hemoconcentration, kidney injury, and low cardiac output were associated with AE at SGLT2i initiation in patients with HF. Using this scoring system, introduction of SGLT2i could be done safely in patients with HF.

Vascular Biology and Vascular Medicine
  • Kohsuke Hagisawa, Makoto Ayaori, Katsunori Ikewaki, Motowo Nakajima, Y ...
    Type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    Subject area: Vascular Biology and Vascular Medicine
    2020 Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 60-68
    Published: January 10, 2020
    Released: January 10, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: December 12, 2019
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    Background:Recently, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been reported to modulate inflammatory development via an antioxidant effect. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the anti-atherosclerotic effect of ALA.

    Methods and Results:Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were fed the following diets for 24 weeks: normal diet (n=6); 1.25% cholesterol diet (high-cholesterol diet, HCD; n=7); HCD+ALA (46 mg/kg/day; n=10); and HCD+ezetimibe (5 mg/kg/day; n=10). At 40 weeks, HCD+ALA had reduced LDL cholesterol (320±68 vs. 379±49 mg/dL), triglyceride (141±44 vs. 195±49 mg/dL) and oxidized LDL (380±40 vs. 422±64 pg/mL) compared with HCD only. En face lesion area for the entire aortic surface was significantly smaller in mice that received HCD+ALA than in mice that received only HCD (32±5% vs. 39±4%, P<0.05). ALA intake exogenously increased tissue heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) level in plaque composite tissue of the carotid arterial wall compared with HCD only (18±8 vs. 12±3 pg/μL, P<0.05), and HO-1-positive plaque showed modest NADPH oxidase 4 expression.

    Conclusions:ALA intake induces exogenous production of HO-1 at plaque sites, and improves lipid profiles and attenuation of atherosclerotic plaque progression in vivo.

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