Background: Early ambulation has been shown to be associated with shorter hospital stay and better clinical outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (HF). Early mobilization program in combination with structured exercise training is recommended, but has yet to be developed and implemented in HF.
Methods and Results: We developed a progressive mobilization program for HF patients that classifies the mobilization process into 7 stages based on disease condition and physical function. We retrospectively analyzed 136 patients with acute HF (80±11 years), who were assigned either to the mobilization program (intervention group, n=75) or to usual care (control group, n=61). The program was safely implemented without any adverse events. Hospital stay was significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with the control group (33±25 vs. 51±36 days, P<0.01). The intervention group had higher activities of daily living (ADL) score at discharge evaluated using the Barthel index (64±38 vs. 49±36, P<0.05). The intervention group also had a higher percentage of discharge to home (71% vs. 52%, P<0.05) and a lower rate of HF-related readmission (16% vs. 36%, P<0.05) compared with the control group.
Conclusions: The progressive mobilization program for acute HF was feasible and was associated with better ADL and reduced hospital stay, leading to improvement of clinical outcome.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine adequate indication for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We analyzed risk factors of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) not only for mortality, but also for morbidity, including long hospital stay (≥90 days) and patient activity at discharge, in patients who underwent SAVR for aortic stenosis (AS).
Methods and Results: Using the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD), 13,961 patients with or without coronary artery bypass grafting who underwent elective SAVR for AS were identified from January 2008 to December 2012. The hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. The percentage of patients who had long hospital stay (≥90 days) and who had moderately or severely decompressed activity at discharge (modified Rankin scale ≥4) was 2.9% and 6.5%, respectively. Eleven and 20 preoperative predictors of hospital mortality and morbidity, respectively, including long hospital stay and compromised status at discharge, were identified. Based on these risk factors, the risk model predicted hospital mortality (area under the curve [AUC], 0.732) and morbidity (AUC, 0.694).
Conclusions: Using JCVSD, a risk model of SAVR was developed for AS. This model can identify patients at high risk not only for mortality, but also for mortality and morbidity, including long hospital stay and status at discharge.
Background: Clinical evidence of the effects of loop diuretics in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is lacking. Thus, we compared the impact of azosemide and furosemide, long- and short-acting loop diuretics, in patients with HFpEF.
Methods and Results: A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted between July 2014 and July 2018. We enrolled 301 consecutive patients with HFpEF (median age, 84 years; IQR, 79–88 years; 54.8% female). Azosemide was used in 127 patients (azosemide group), and furosemide in 174 (furosemide group). We constructed Cox models for a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and HF hospitalization (primary endpoints). During a median follow-up of 317 days (IQR, 174–734 days), the primary endpoint occurred in 112 patients (37.2%). On multivariate inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) Cox modeling, the azosemide group had a significantly lower incidence of adverse events than the furosemide group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27–0.80; P=0.006). Furthermore, on multivariate IPTW Cox modeling for the secondary endpoints, cardiac death (HR, 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17–0.89; P=0.025) and unplanned hospitalization for decompensated HF (HR, 0.50; 95% CI: 0.28–0.89; P=0.018) were also reduced in the azosemide group.
Conclusions: Azosemide significantly reduced the risk of adverse events compared with furosemide in HFpEF patients.
Background: The outcome of redo transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) implantation (TAVI) is unknown for TAV structural valve degeneration (SVD). This paper reports the initial results of redo TAVI for TAV-SVD in Japanese patients.
Methods and Results: Of 630 consecutive patients, 6 (1.0%) underwent redo TAVI for TAV-SVD (689–1,932 days after the first TAVI). The first TAV were 23-mm balloon-expandable valves (BEV, n=5) and a 26-mm self-expandable valve (SEV, n=1). All patients underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) before redo TAVI, which showed first-TAV under-expansion (range, 19.1–21.0 mm) compared with the label size. Two BEV and 4 SEV were successfully implanted as second TAV, without moderate/severe regurgitation or 30-day mortality. One of 2 patients with a BEV-inside-BEV implantation had a high transvalvular mean pressure gradient post-procedurally (34 mmHg) and required surgical valve replacement 248 days after the redo TAVI. This, however, was unnoted in patients with SEV implantation during redo TAVI. Planned coronary artery bypass grafting was concomitantly performed in 1 patient with a small sino-tubular junction and SEV-inside-SEV implantation because of the risk of coronary malperfusion caused by the first TAV leaflets. Five of the 6 patients survived during the follow-up period (range, 285–1,503 days).
Conclusions: Redo TAVI for TAV-SVD appears safe and feasible, while specific strategies based on MDCT and device selection seem important for better outcomes.
Background: Atrial fibrosis and inflammation play important roles in perpetuating and initiating atrial fibrillation (AF). Although the fibrotic area can be visualized as a delayed enhancement area on late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI), atrial inflammation has not yet been visualized on any imaging modality. We describe the protocol for a feasibility study to visualize atrial inflammation on positron emission tomography/MRI (PET/MRI).
Methods and Results: This is a single-arm, prospective, open-label proof-of concept trial, involving AF patients after cryoballoon ablation (CBA). A total of 30 paroxysmal AF patients will be enrolled and undergo simultaneous PET/MRI for the assessment of regional 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake 1 day after the CBA. Furthermore, LGE-MRI will be performed before CBA, and at 1 and 4 weeks after assessing the regional LGE area. The main outcome measures will be (1) the feasibility of imaging inflammation in the left atrium on PET/MRI; and (2) the safety of the intervention.
Conclusions: There are few data on the visualization of atrial inflammation using PET/MRI. Establishing the visualization methodology will contribute to elucidating the fundamental histopathologic findings of the progress to fibrosis, and to the planning and execution of a larger definitive trial to test the usefulness of PET/MRI.