Hemopoietic stem cells adhere to hemopoietic supportive (MS-5) cells, but not to non-supportive (MS-K) cells. Although a soluble stem cell factor (SCF) was produced by both of these cell lines, little activity was detectable in the supernatant from the cultures of either of these cells, indicating that SCF might be compartmentalized within the extracellular matrix (ECM), and transferred directly to the stem cells via the ECM(44). To probe this possibility, we studied the transfer of SCF from the ECM and the subsequent support of the survival of the hemopoietic stem cells. A stem cell-enriched bone marrow cell fraction was overlaid on SCF-containing ECM. The stem cells survived and proliferated for some days without differentiation under these conditions, whereas stem cells overlaid on ECM without SCF died within a few days. Addition of interleukin-3 (IL-3) to the ECM that contains SCF, induced differentiation of the stem cells. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced further differentiation of the stem cells, which was accompanied by a decrease in the number of colony-forming unit in spleen (CFU-S). These observations verified the above hypothesis, and indicated that the survival, the self-renewal, and the differentiation of hemopoietic stem cells can be separately controlled at least in vitro.
To elucidate the relationship of estrogen-depleted condition to apoptosis and tumor regression, 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary cancers of Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or treated with the anti-estrogenic agent epitiostanol after which proliferative activity and the incidence of apoptosis were investigated using the nick end labeling method, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, electron microscopy, the BrdU-labeling method and mitotic count. Tumor regression was found after 7-day treatment, and apoptosis induced by the agent on the 3rd day was clearly shown in both agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and electron microscopy, which are two major methods used to judge apoptosis. The incidence of apoptosis revealed by the nick end labeling method reached its maximum, about threefold the control level, on the 3rd day of epitiostanol treatment compared with control tumors (P < 0.01). The incidence of the cells incorporating BrdU reached its maximumof 9.7% on the 2nd day of the treatment, while the incidence in tumors without treatment was 7.5% (P<0.05). Subsequently, the incidence of apoptosis was reduced after 7-day treatment, and the incidence of BrdU-positive cells was significantly reduced to about 3% after 5-day treatment. The incidence of mitosis did not change until the 3rd day of the treatment and was reduced after 5-day treatment. Similarly, chronological changes of the incidences of BrdU-labeled cells, apoptotic cells and mitosis were observed in the tumors after ovariectomy. BrdU-labeled apoptotic bodies were detected in the tumors on the 3rd day in epitiostanoltreated rats that received a 6-hr bolus of BrdU before sacrifice. These findings indicate that, in a hormone-dependent rat mammary cancer model, treatment with this anti-estrogenic agent causes at least somecancer cells to fall into apoptosis after entering the S-phase of the cell cycle, resulting in the regression of mammary tumors.
Antibodies against pokeweed agglutinin binding proteins isolated from F9 embryonal carcinoma cells were used to screen a λgt11 expression library constructed from the cells. ACDNA clone thus obtained encoded a novel calcium binding protein of 140 kDa (CBP-140). Antibodies raised against the CBP-140 fusion protein stained a 140 kDa band in extracts not only from F9 cells but also from various mouse organs. A calcium blot experiment using CBP-140 fusion protein verified the calcium binding property of the protein. In the partial amino acid sequence so far clarified (652 amino acid residues) we could not detect EF-hand, but could detect contiguous acidic amino acids, which may serve as a calcium-binding site. CBP-140 showed homology with 70-kDa heat shock protein, though it was not induced by heat shock treatment. Localization of CBP-140 in endoplasmic reticulum was shown by indirect immunofluorescence staining and also by subcellular fractionation. Amino acid sequence of CBP-140 contains a carboxyl-terminal Asn-Asp-Glu-Leu (NDEL) sequence, which resembles Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) sequence, a signal to retain the resident proteins in endoplasmic reticulum ; NDEL sequence may indeed play a similar role.
In human T lymphocytes immunohlotting analysis of phosphoinositidase C (PIC) isoforms has shown that gamma 1 is the most represented isoform both at the cytoplasmic and nuclear level, and that interferon beta produces, within 90min of treatment, an increase of its expression. These results, also supported by immunoelectronmicroscopic investigation, strongly suggest the involvement of PIC gamma1 in the cascade of molecular events generated by the interaction between interferon and its cell surface receptors.
A novel method of preparing hybridomas producing rat monoclonal antibodies was established. The enlarged medial iliac lymph nodes from rats injected via hind footpads with an emulsion of antigen and Freund's adjuvant were used for cell fusion. Ovalbumin was used as a representative antigen. The incidence of hybridomas producing antibody of interest with this method was about 10 times higher than that of hybridomas with the conventional method using mouse or rat spleen cells. The average percentages of hybridomas producing IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG2c were 37.1%, 47.0%, 15.9% and 0.0%, respectively. A single injection with antigen was sufficient for immunization in this method.
A novel 40-kDa heat-shock protein hsp 40 in mammalian cells has been recently identified to be a homolog of bacterial DnaJ protein. We have previously shown the colocalization of hsc70 (p73, constitutive form) with hsp40 in the nucleoli of heat-shocked HeLa cells. In this report we further investigated intracellular translocation and localization of hsp40 and hsp70 (both constitutive p73 and inducible p72) in several mammalian cells. Translocation kinetics of hsp40 during heating at mild temperature were almost the same as those of hsp70 in HeLa cells. Hsp40 colocalized not only with hsc70 (p73) but also with hsp70 (p72) in heat-shocked HeLa (human), HA-1 (Chinese hamster) and NRK (rat) cells. Direct interaction of hsp40 with hsp70 (p73 and/or p72) was observed in all cells tested by immunoprecipitation methods. Also, treatments of cells with cytoskeleton- acting drugs such as cytochalasin E, colchicine and taxol had no effect on the heat-induced translocation of hsc70 (p73) and hsp40 in NRK cells. These results strongly suggest that hsp40 and hsp70 (p73/p72) form a complex in the cytoplasm at normal temperature, translocate together and colocalize in the nuclei and nucleoli upon heat-shock, and that they may function cooperatively to repair (ref old) denatured proteins under stress conditions.
The proliferation of primary cultured rat hepatocytes was observed in serum-free modified DMEM supplemented with 10mM nicotinamide and 10ng/ml EGF. These proliferating cells were mainly mononucleate and formed small-cell colonies after 4 days of culture. In the present experiment primary cultured hepatocytes were treated with Activin A, IL-1β IL-6, and TGF-β which have been shown to be inhibitors of the DNA synthesis of rat hepatocytes, to examine whether these four inhibitors could suppress the formation of small-cell colonies. The initial DNA synthesis of more than 50% of the cells was dose-dependently inhibited by all the factors and the strongest inhibition was demonstrated in the cells treated with TGF-β. Although Activin A and IL-6 did not block the colony development when the agents were administered at 96 h, just before the time when the cells started to form colonies, TGF-β and IL-β could inhibit the colony formation completely and partially, respectively. Transient treatment (48-72 h) with TGF-β was enough to suppress colony development, while Activin A and IL-6 did not block the formation of colonies. IL-β partially suppressed this formation. However, continuous administration (48-144 h) of IL-β as well as TGF-β stimulated the detachment of the cells from dishes and the remaining hepatocytes failed to form colonies. In addition, only TGF-β could inhibit the DNA synthesis of most small cells in the established colonies as well as that of relatively large hepatocytes. Neither Activin A, IL-β nor IL-6 could inhibit the DNA synthesis of the small cells. Thus, only TGF-β could completely inhibit both the DNA synthesis of any type of hepatocyte and the formation of small-cell colonies.
To construct recombinant retroviruses with only a single active promoter, we introduced point mutations into the TATA box region of the 3'-LTR, and successfully obtained high-titer virus with sufficient self-inactivating activity. However, the viral titer could not be determined by the number of G418 resistant colon es since the neomycin resistance gene was under 5'-LTR control, because of inactivation of the selection marker in target glioma cells. To overcome this problem, we constructed PCR primers with homology to a gene under the control of the internal promoter of recombinant retrovirus, and to retrovirus-specific sequences. There was good correlation between the amount of PCR-amplified product and the number of colony forming units when glioma cells were transduced with the retroviruses containing both the neomycin resistance gene and the HTK gene. Amplified PCR products quantitated by densitometry after glioma cells were transduced with SIV retrovirus vectors, and there was good correlation between density and sensitivity to GCV following transduction. Therefore, detection of HTK PCR products from glioma cells transduced with HTK-bearing retroviruses is useful for determining the appropriate packaging cell for efficient production of viral particles. This detection system is especially useful for isolating high titer clones producing SIV-type retroviruses.