Journal of Applied Glycoscience
Online ISSN : 1880-7291
Print ISSN : 1344-7882
ISSN-L : 1344-7882
Current issue
Displaying 1-4 of 4 articles from this issue
Regular paper
  • Shuntaro Machida, Katsuichi Saito, Mamoru Nishimoto, Motomitsu Kitaoka
    2022 Volume 69 Issue 2 Pages 15-21
    Published: May 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 15, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 25, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Lacto-N-biose I (LNB) is supposed to represent the bifidus factor in human milk oligosaccharides, and can be practically produced from sucrose and GlcNAc using four bifidobacterial enzymes, 1,3-β-galactosyl-N-acetylhexosamine phosphorylase, sucrose phosphorylase, UDP-glucose-hexose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, recombinantly produced by Escherichia coli. Here the production of LNB by the same enzymatic method without using genetically modified enzymes to consider the use of LNB for a food ingredient was reported. All four enzymes were produced as the intracellular enzymes of Bifidobacterium strains. The mixture of the crude extracts contained all four enzymes, with other enzymes interfering with the LNB production, namely, phosphoglucomutase, fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase, and glycogen phosphorylase. The first two interfering enzymes were selectively inactivated by heat treatment at 47 °C for 1 h in the presence of pancreatin, and glycogen phosphorylase was disabled by hydrolyzing its possible acceptor molecules using glucoamylase. Finally, 91 % of GlcNAc was converted into LNB in the 100-mL reaction mixture containing 300 mM GlcNAc.

  • Tamami Ida, Naoko Crofts, Satoko Miura, Ryo Matsushima, Naoko Fujita
    2022 Volume 69 Issue 2 Pages 23-33
    Published: May 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 15, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Amylopectin, which consists of highly branched glucose polymers, is a major component of starch. Biochemical processes that regulate the elongation of glucose polymers and the generation and removal of glucose branches are essential for determining the properties of starch. Starch synthases (SSs) and branching enzyme (BE) mainly form complexes consisting of SSI, SSIIa, and BEIIb during endosperm development. Loss of BEIIb in rice is complemented by BEIIa, but the compensatory effects differ depending on the presence or absence of inactive BEIIb. To better understand these compensatory mechanisms, ss2a be2b (+) double mutant, which possessed truncated inactive SSIIa and inactive BEIIb, were analyzed. Soluble proteins separated by gel filtration chromatography showed that SSIIa and BEIIb proteins in the wild-type exhibited a broad range of elution patterns and only small amounts were detected in high molecular mass fractions. In contrast, most of truncated inactive SSIIa and inactive BEIIb from ss2a be2b (+) were found in high molecular mass fractions, and the SSI-SSIIa-BEIIb trimeric protein complex found in the wild-type was likely absent in ss2a be2b (+). Those SSIIa and BEIIb proteins in high molecular mass fractions in ss2a be2b (+) were also identified by mass spectrometry. Parental ss2a single mutant had negligible amounts of SSIIa suggesting that the truncated inactive SSIIa was recruited to high-molecular mass complexes in the presence of inactive BEIIb in ss2a be2b (+) double mutant. In addition, SSIVb might be involved in the formation of alternative protein complexes with < 300 kDa in ss2a be2b (+).

  • Keisuke Kojima, Naoki Sunagawa, Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Theodora Tryfona, M ...
    2022 Volume 69 Issue 2 Pages 35-43
    Published: May 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 15, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Endo-type xylanases are key enzymes in microbial xylanolytic systems, and xylanases belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 10 or 11 are the major enzymes degrading xylan in nature. These enzymes have typically been characterized using xylan prepared by alkaline extraction, which removes acetyl sidechains from the substrate, and thus the effect of acetyl groups on xylan degradation remains unclear. Here, we compare the ability of GH10 and 11 xylanases, PcXyn10A and PcXyn11B, from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade acetylated and deacetylated xylan from various plants. Product quantification revealed that PcXyn10A effectively degraded both acetylated xylan extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana and the deacetylated xylan obtained by alkaline treatment, generating xylooligosaccharides. In contrast, PcXyn11B showed limited activity towards acetyl xylan, but showed significantly increased activity after deacetylation of the xylan. Polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis showed that PcXyn11B generated a broad range of products from native acetylated xylans extracted from birch wood and rice straw, including large residual xylooligosaccharides, while non-acetylated xylan from Japanese cedar was readily degraded into xylooligosaccharides. These results suggest that the degradability of native xylan by GH11 xylanases is highly dependent on the extent of acetyl group substitution. Analysis of 31 fungal genomes in the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes database indicated that the presence of GH11 xylanases is correlated to that of carbohydrate esterase (CE) family 1 acetyl xylan esterases (AXEs), while this is not the case for GH10 xylanases. These findings may imply co-evolution of GH11 xylanases and CE1 AXEs.

Note
  • Ikuko Kakizaki, Yoji Kato
    2022 Volume 69 Issue 2 Pages 45-48
    Published: May 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 15, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 18, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Over the past 10 years, many products utilizing the functionality of salmon cartilage proteoglycan have come on the market, and consumer awareness of proteoglycan has increased. During this period, the biggest issue has been how to evaluate the amount and quality of proteoglycan in the cartilage extract blended in the products. In this study, we propose an immunological method that can easily evaluate the amount and quality of proteoglycan in the proteoglycan-containing compositions. By the present method, it is possible to evaluate not only the retention of the functional domains of the core protein of proteoglycan, but also that of chondroitin sulfate chains linked to the core protein. Furthermore, the binding activity of proteoglycan to hyaluronan can be evaluated if hyaluronan is used as a probe instead of an antibody. This method is expected to be useful for proteoglycan quality evaluation during the manufacturing process and product storage.

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