Comparative Education
Online ISSN : 2185-2073
Print ISSN : 0916-6785
ISSN-L : 0916-6785
Volume 1994 , Issue 20
Showing 1-28 articles out of 28 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 1-3
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (228K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 7-14
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (795K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 15-23
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (885K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 25-33
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (883K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 35-40
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (600K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 41-47
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (582K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 49-60
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (833K)
  • Yokuo MURATA, Mitsuhiro IKEDA, Megumi SHIBUYA, Chiaki YAMADA
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 63-80,212
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper is intended as an investigation of how Japanese schools should accept foreign students from an analysis of the educational practices of Japanese public elementary schools.
    The survey was made in Moka City, Tochigi Prefecture, and Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki Prefecture. Through a comparison between these two areas, three perspectives of analysis were considered, with the following comparisons between 1) the areas: Moka and Tsukuba, 2) the characteristics of foreign students and their parents: who are from South America with Japanese background and from East Asia, Europe, and North America, 3) the types of schools: those with a large number of foreign students and a small number. The survey was made through interviews and questionnaires to foreign students, their parents, Japanese students, and teachers. Also, observation of intensive Japanese language classes and regular classes was made.
    Download PDF (8528K)
  • Jongkook LEE
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 81-92,214
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Korea, legal control and administrative directives regarding education have been strengthened considerably in recent years. As a result of that trend, the particularity (the raison d'être) of private schools has been weakened, and investment in private schools has been likely to be avoided. Through my long study of Korean law regarding private schools, I have been able to understand that it has been modeled upon Japanese law (though perhaps, having as many differences as similarities). Here we will explore some suggestions for solving these problems through analyzing and comparing these two systems of law. Both systems stand on the same principle or frame-work of “autonomy (esteem of independence or freedom) and public quality (heightening of public service)”.
    Importantly, the Korean government has ignored autonomy and over-strengthened the quality of public education. This reflects historical, political, economic and social background, while the Japanese government has tried to balance and harmonize both principles as mush as possible.
    Download PDF (1372K)
  • Yoshikazu OGAWA
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 93-104,215
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper deals with Chinese higher education policies for minorities focusing on the mechanisms of “preference” and “control.” The findings are as follows: First, the Chinese government established “Institutes of Nationalities”(Minzu Xueyuan) for the training of minorities' cadres. These “Institutes of Nationalities” originated with “Liberation Area-Type Colleges”, which put an emphasis on political-ideological education.
    Second, Chinese higher education policies for minorities are characterized as “preference.” Many of preferential policies have been instituted thus far, such as special treatments for minorities in the admission procedures and campus life of the “Institutes of Nationalities.”
    Download PDF (1270K)
  • Hirotaka NAMBU
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 105-116,216
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of the self-study examination system in Chinese higher education after briefly examining higher education policies following the Cultural Revolution.
    Since the end of the 1970's, the necessity of expansion of higher education in order to accomplish the ‘Four Modernizations’ has been recognized. Moreover, for individuals obtaining a higher education level diploma has become the way to acquire social prestige and enhance living conditions and the prerequisite for paticular jobs. In spite of such social pressures, the rapid expansion of higher education is restrained by such reasons as shortages of necessary funds and fears of the deteriorating quality of higher education. Therefore, throughout 1980's, the roles of regular and adult higher education institutions have become clearer by way of improving their educational conditions and imposing restrictions on entrance. The self-study examination system was introduced and has expanded under such a social background. This is a system whereby a person can obtain a higher education level deploma and gain the same wage and treatment as graduated of higher education institutions after passing certain required subjects.Since the introduction of the examination in Beijing in 1981, the number of candidates has increased year by year from 2, 686 in 1981 to 1, 470, 000 in 1990. The cumulative number of people who have obtained some diploma of higher education by 1990 is 530, 000.At the time of the introduction, this system was independent from regular and adult higher education institutions as the way of obtaining a higher education level diploma.But by the end of 1980's, it has been a part of the higher education system with the roles of regular and adult higher education institutions made clearer.One important role is to make access to higher education easier, while an other is to make the criteria of higher education clearer. The self-study examination system, having such importnant roles, will continue to play an important position in Chinese higher education.
    Download PDF (1415K)
  • Takashi NOZU
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 117-128,217
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between the family and early childhood educational institutions in rural Thailand. After observing various religious rituals, these were examined from a viewpoint of how these rituals relate to cultural transmission.
    Based on field research, I firstly categorised the ritual types according to actual conditions. Secondly, I examined the family's concern about the ritual practices in early childhood educational institutions and compared value systems transmitted through these rituals in both the family and such institution. The results of this research are as follows:
    Rituals in both the family and educational institution appear to have a similar role in the transmission of Thai folk Buddhist beliefs. Children learn cultural behavior patterns through their participation in these rituals as they are performed in both the family and educational institutions.
    However, ritual in early childhood educational institutions have an ideological role to transmit the national culture and moral values, different from the role of the family's rituals.The former rituals seem to foster respect for the monarchy and nationally authorized Buddhism in particular. On the other hand, a family's rituals may be concerned with the value of the transmission of traditional folk belief.
    Download PDF (1221K)
  • Focusing on the Assurance of Education in the Multi-ethnic Society
    Naoko KANDORI
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 129-140,218
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Australia is one of a number of multi-ethnic countries which have accepted immigrants since 1788.Therefore, in Australia, it has been very important to encourage a suitable language policy.Especially, as non-English speaking people have been recently increasing, to develop the teaching of LOTE is required.
    The aim of this paper is to study the importance of language education for a multi-ethnic society, looking at the case of Australia.From this point of view, this paper focused on clarifying the LOTE policies of each level, including the Commonwealth, state, region and school.Concerning the state level, I focused on Victoria, since it has more immigrants from various countries compared to other states.In Victoria, I focused on the Western Metropolitan Region and its school for the same reason.On these matters, this paper consists of the following sections:
    1.Introduction
    2.LOTE Policies of the Commonwealth Department of Education and the Department of Education in each state
    3.The Current Situation of LOTE in Victoria
    4.Conclusion
    Through my study, the educational significance of LOTE can be found in the following two points: Firstly, it is possible for students who have non-English speaking backgrounds to keep learning their mother tongue and culture.Secondly, LOTE gives opportunities for all Australian students to study new languages and cultures. Therefore, LOTE in Australia has an important role not only in terms of acquiring language proficiency, but also in developing the ability to esteem and recognize various languages and cultures.
    In view of these facts, LOTE's important role as one of the means of building up the multi-ethnic society in Australia is clarified. However, it is necessary for educational authorities to reform LOTE in order to meet the demands of local communities.It is also very important for the Commonwealth government to recognize local characteristics and provide for language policies which meet local demands.
    Download PDF (2735K)
  • Tomoaki MATSUO
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 141-151,219
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: May 20, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since the civil rights and ethnic revival movements of the 1960's, educational programs and practices promoting equal opportunity have emerged and have been developed in response to the needs of various ethnic groups;education related to ethnic issues has come to be called multicultural education.As policymakers have emphasized equality in education, the development of multicultural education as a reform movement promoting equal opportunity for all students-regardless of ethnicity, race, gender, exceptionality, social class, and so on-has been considerable.
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic idea of multicultural education as a reform movement, and to show the present situation of multicultural education policies in relationship to total school reform.
    My initial focus is on the basic idea that multicultural education is an attempt to reform the total school environment, including textbooks, materials, curriculum, teaching strategies, the composition of school staff and its attitude, the hidden curriculum, school norm.It can be said that a dominant Anglo culture has permeated every area of American schools, has brought about the omission of information and has resulted in culturally-related inequality, so much so that it is necessary now to infuse the total school environment with multicultural perspectives in order to eliminate inequalities.
    Secondly, emphasis is put on documenting the present situation of multicultural education policies at the state level, focusing on curriculum, instructional materials, teacher education, school culture, and parents-community involvement. This is followed by a description of an actual reform plan in Iowa, which has attempted to refer to multicultural perspectives in every aspect of schooling.
    Lastly, implications for multicultural issues in Japan, such as the education of Korean and Chinese populations, other foreign students, students returning from overseas are discussed.
    Download PDF (1045K)
  • Osamu YAOSAKA
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 153-164,220
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Alternative certification is the most topical innovation in teacher certification systems in the U. S.This program is a rapidly growing phenomenon, and has been implemented in 39 states (as of 1991) in certain typical categories.Former president George Bush has stated, “We should break down the barriers to talented people who want to teach and have demonstrated their competence in other fields.”The president has brought alternative teacher certification to the attention of pol cy-makers and the public by advocating alternative routes.
    But this certification program is also a hotly-debated topic in America. Debates center around the meaning of the term, as well as whether or not it is a desirable way to bring talented people into the teaching profession.
    Based on these thoughts, this paper considers the following points: First, the original background of the growth of alternative certification programs-especially in terms of teacher shortages, emergency certificates and misassigned teachers.Second, the characteristics of alternative certification programs-through analysis on program patterns among states (New Jersey, Connecticut, Los Angeles in California) is examined.Finally, the effectiveness of alternative certification programs-from the viewpoints of the purposes of policy, undergraduate GPAs, attrition, and assessment of these alternate route teachers is noted.
    It was found that the term ‘alternative routes’ that have been seen here mask considerable variation.Policy discussion that focuses on the merits of the alternate route versus college-based teacher preparation oversimplifies the issue.Alternate route programs need to be judged in terms of their different goals and context as well as their impact on students and the profession of teaching.For example, if the goal is to eliminate or upgrade emergency certification, the program might be seen as commendable.If the goal is to attract a more diverse group of able people into teaching, demographic data on recruitment and retention need to be collected.As resuls accumulate about the success and failures of alternate route programs, it will be important to explore the design variations and implementation of particular alternate route programs before extolling or dismissing alternate routes in general. Teacher educators, school people, and policy-makers will have much to learn from viewing alternate route programs as a variety of context-specific experiments rather than as a substitute or competitor of college-based teacher education programs.
    Download PDF (1216K)
  • Mitsuru TAKI
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 165-178,221
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    After World War II, the Swedish educational system changed to a less selective one.It was intended that through this new system differences based on social class, sex, region, and so on, should decrease.Statistical data on the government, however, show us that the social imbalance still remains.Some research also shows the same trend using other data.
    The Swedish school system gives children almost the same curriculum as well as the right to get more education.There is no entrance examination at any level, except for some special departments in higher education.No fees are required for upper secondary and higher education.If children have enough knowledge and aspiration, they can choose any track in upper secondary school and any department in higher education, regardless of their social background.Theoretically, individual choice has replaced social selection.But the educational result has still been affected by social class.Children from lower classes are often willing to (or obliged to) choose working or shorter schooling through the present system.I present two questions on this How does social class affect ect such process? What function does school have on such a process?
    The aim of this paper is to answer these two questions, using published data from three longitudinal surveys in Sweden: the LING project, the Metropolitan project, and the Social Segregation project.These give us data on the relationships between social class and education.I try to draw one picture of the process by reconstructing each survey.Some of the results of this study are as follows:
    1.A good educational environment, meaning a good economical situation, parents' education, parents'information on good education and good jobs, and so on, can help children to achieve in primary school.These also help children to have a positive plan for their long-term education and for good jobs.Children from higher classes can make the most of the opportunities given by the present educational system.Children from lower classes start later, without enough information, and it is too difficult for them to catch up with those children who have gone ahead.
    2.School treats every child fairly according to their ability.It neither restrains nor reinforces the effect of social class.It only maintains the initial advantage and disadvantage, without compensating the initial latecomer.
    Download PDF (1325K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 181-182
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (195K)
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 183-184
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (189K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 185-186
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (195K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 189-193
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (452K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 198-199
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (200K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 200-201
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (199K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 202-203
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (175K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 204-205
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (205K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 208
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (94K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 209
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (78K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 210
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (95K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 1994 Issue 20 Pages 211
    Published: July 01, 1994
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (103K)
feedback
Top