Comparative Education
Online ISSN : 2185-2073
Print ISSN : 0916-6785
ISSN-L : 0916-6785
Volume 1996 , Issue 22
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 1-2
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 5-18
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 19-28
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 29-38
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 39-47
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 51-60
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 61-68
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 69-76
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 77-83
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • In Relation to the Educational Affairs in East Lothian, Scotland, at the Beginning of the 19th Century
    Hiroyuki OKAMOTO
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 87-99,205
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    This paper was written down as a part of my historical work, in which I am planning to analyse, firstly, the outlook on the general public of Samuel Smiles (1812-1904), secondly, of Masanao Nakamura (1832-91).
    Smiles, a biographer in the Victorian era, wrote Self-Help, and, a translation into Japanese of which, titled Saigoku Risshihen, the Biographies of Western Self-Made Men by Nakamura, became a best seller in Japan. It was not only often used as a textbook at primary schools which were established in Japan at almost the same time, but also read by many children from former Samurai families, who had already lost their social status based on the feudalism.
    Saigoku Risshihen inspired and urged them to devote themselves to studying hard. However, the aim of their study was almost always to succeed in the entranceexamination to Tokyo University, the Faculty of Law of which was established mainlyto make the bureaucrats. It is called risshin-shusse shugi, or the principle for what iscalled the success of life.
    This is the direct origin of the overheated struggle for success in the entranceexaminations, one of the biggest educational problems in Japan today.And I thinkthat lots of winners learned to look down upon the general public without noticing, andthat it has been another big, but hidden problem of Japanese education.On the other hand, I think that Smiles did not look down upon the generalpublic at all, and that Nakamura learned not to do after reading Smiles'Self-Help, although he had tended to look down upon the general public strongly before the MeijiRestoration.And after all I would like to make the fact known that the ideas of thetwo were much loftier than risshin-shusse shugi.
    In this paper, I analysed Smiles'outlook on the general public in his youngdays when he lived in the burgh of Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland.Firstly, Iexamined his boyhood, and pointed out two main points:one is that he learned whatthe way of living without mentally bowing to any authorities is like, and the other isthat he knew obscure persons sometimes show brilliant talents.
    The former point was formed because he was a descendant of a Cameronian, a member of a group of radical Covenanters.Smiles himself was not interested inreligion at all, but he must have heard the stories of his ancestor's martyrdom.Thelatter point was formed because his family had a maid who was excellent at telling himtales.The name of the story was Guy Mannering, and after some years Smiles got toknow that it was a novel by Sir Walter Scott.Smiles was very much surprised toknow that the maid had remembered all of the story and had not ommited at all whentelling him the story.
    These two points above remained throughout his youthful days.On the otherhand, the atmosphere of his school was very uncomfortable because his teacher wastoo tyrannical.Smiles learned to hate the method to take strong measures in order tomake others bow.
    And working as an apprentice of a medical doctor afterwards, he found a lotof intellectual farmers in East Lothian.Many of them were well-educated at parishschools in rural areas.So Smiles learned that respectful characters were often made atgood schools.In this paper I introduced a report by one of His Majesty's Inspectors in1840's.I regret that even researchers in Japan often mistake that there were noinspectors in Britain in this age.Some of them have no idea that Scotland has had aquite different educational system from England.Indeed the system of parish schoolsin Scotland was originally made to conciliate Scottish people after the Forty-Five.Sothe duties of the inspectors included watching Scottish population.
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  • Focusing on the Process of Implementation
    Hiroshi SATO
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 101-112,208
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    Currently, we find out curriculum policies reforms among developed countries such as 1988 Education Reform Act in UK and Goals 2000 in America. Australia is not an exception in that she decided to develop the National Curriculum.However the study of the Australian National Curriculum is not so made in Japan. I would stud the National Curriculum in Australia focusing on its implementation. Further, I would like to make a few suggestions about how curriculum policies in Japan should be reformed through this study.
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  • With an Emphasis on Their Relation to the National Integration Policy
    Koro SUZUKI
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 113-125,211
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    The history of Chinese schools in Thailand dated back to the beginning of the twentieth century when their educational activities were conducted freely. But afterwards as the Chinese schools were seen as the symbol of Chinese nationalism, Thai Government began to consider interference in Chinese education. The first official action taken was the enforcement of the 1918 Private Schools Act. By this Act, the Chinese schools were subject to stay as a kind of Thai private schools under the Government's control. Under the same curriculum as other public schools, Chinese language was allowed to be taught only from the first to fourth grades. With various limitations, the Chinese schools have had difficulty in keeping their original role as an institution for maintaining ethnic culture including Chinese language.
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  • An Analysis of Research Production of Higher Education Institutions
    Hirotaka NANBU
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 127-138,213
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    The aim of this paper is to understand and analyze the regional disparity of research activity in present China by using data of research production which individual institutions of higher education produced.The subject in this study is restricted to the study of natural science, medical science, technology, and the science of agriculture.
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  • A Case Study of Pariangan Village in West Sumatra
    Mina HATTORI
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 139-151,216
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    The purpose of this article is to analyze ritual and religious education in Islamic society. Ritual in Islam is defined as a series of Islamic ceremonies based on “al-Qur'an” and “hadits”. It is carried out in the life stage of a human being from birth until death.
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  • A Case Study of Education Sector Adjustment Lending in Chana
    Takashi HAMANO
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 153-166,218
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    1. This paper aims at examining the development of educational program lending by the World Bank through a case study of Education Sector Adjustment Lending (SECAL) in Ghana, focusing on policy-making, implementation, and evaluation.
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  • A Case Study of Kumaji YOSHIDA's Lecture on the Imperial Rescript on Education (1906)
    Yuji HIRATA
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 167-179,221
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    Currently a growing interest in Japan is visible all over the world, owing mainly to its economic importance. In Japan herself, “Internationalization of Education” is being advocated more loudly. Among foreign scholars some misunderstandings concerning Japanese education seem to continue because of the lack of information and their failure of cognition. Japan will have to make efforts to introduce her education more positively and more correctly to other countries, in order to deepen international understanding. It goes without saying that verbal communication needs looking in.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 182-183
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 184-185
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 188-189
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 190-191
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 192-193
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 194-195
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 198
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    Download PDF (105K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 199
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    Download PDF (138K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 200
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (107K)
  • [in Japanese]
    1996 Volume 1996 Issue 22 Pages 201
    Published: June 15, 1996
    Released: January 27, 2011
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