Comparative Education
Online ISSN : 2185-2073
Print ISSN : 0916-6785
ISSN-L : 0916-6785
Volume 1995 , Issue 21
Showing 1-33 articles out of 33 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 1-3
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 7-14
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 15-22
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 23-30
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 31-37
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 39-46
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • Ken-ichi ISHIDA
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 49-59,211
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    The aim of this paper is to present findings from an inquiry into the background of the establishment of Barangay High Schools in the Philippines. Barangay High Schools were established by Pedro T. Orata in 1964 in an effort to promote the expansion of secondary education. The schools were opened throughout the country with local cooperation and with little financial support from the government. Orata's educational movement can be considered to have contributed positively and significantly to the democratization of Philippine education.
    The three primary findings are as follows: One, Pedro T. Orata established the schools in order to provide the opportunity of secondary education for youth in rural areas. At that time, many youth had been denied access due to the lack of personal financial resources. There were few public high schools in local communities and high tuition fees for private high schools made them inaccessible. In additon, Orata believed that the curricula of regular high schools needed to be reformed to include better vocational training.
    Two, Orata's idea of “self-supporting” was emphasized in the development of in-school management in the Barangay High Schools. Local inhabitants of a given village, a “Barangay”, cooperated together to support the school financially. In a “home project” program, the students and their parents participated in some productive activity, such as raising piglets or making slippers. They were encouraged to allot the profit to tuition fees.
    Three, as a result of massive effort and subsequent rapid development, administrative problems arose. In some of the high schools, a quality level of education could not be maintained sufficiently because of a lack of qualified teachers and facilities, in addition to financial restrictions. Hence, it became necessary for the Department of Education to establish new rules for the development and maintenance of Barangay High Schools. The managers of private high schools also posed a problem. They began to oppose their establishment because of a feared loss in profits as many students entered Barangay High Schools. In 1969, the Republic Act No.6054 stabilized the establishment and management of the Barangay High Schools under Congress.
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  • Junko SUZUKI
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 61-71,212
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    There is vocal public demand for more space in higher education in Thailand. From long ago, higher education was just for a small number of young people, the so-called ‘Elite’.
    But recently, the situation has changed. Many Thai people want to reach for a university-level education. In 1990, the number of students in higher education was about 730, 000. In this figure is included 510, 000 students enrolled in open universities. Therefore, open universities play an important role in higher education in Thailand.
    There are two open universities in Thailand. Ramkhamhaeng University was founded in 1971 and has its own campus in Bangkok. Some students attend classes every day, while others come only to register for credits or take course-examinations. Lectures are done for numerous students in a huge-sized class through microphones.
    Sukhouthai Thammathirat Open University was founded in 1978 and adopted ‘distance-learning’, which is an educational system through multimedi (for example, printed material, cassette-tapes, and radio or T. V. program on the air). Students basically study at home, and at the end of the school-term, they can take course-examinations at study-centers in each prefecture.
    The functions of open universities are the following; The Open University, (OU) as a national university, provides a B. A. degree and professional knowledge. The OU expand educational opportunities for many Thai people who cannot afford school fees for private universities. The OU also equalize the higher-educational opportunity-gap between urban and rural areas. The OU can offer university-level education for both working people and full-time students.
    On the other hand, Ramkhamhaeng University absorbs young students who cannot pass national-entrance-examination for normal universities.
    Another impact should be noticed. In Sukhouthai Thammathirat Open University, many students want to reach the master-course study level. This may show evidence of the ‘Diploma Disease’ in Thailand.
    These two open universities in Thailand have multiple functions, and diffuse higher-educational opportunities to the Thai people.
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  • Regulation between National Culture and Ethnic Culture
    Ayami NAKAYA
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 73-82,213
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    This paper deals with the development process and structure of “Muatan Lokal”(Local Content) curriculum, with attention to its relevance in balancing education for national and ethnic culture in Indonesia.
    State level authorities first introduced “Muatan Lokal” in the 1994 academic year to elementary and junior secondary schools. Prior to 1994, official time allocation was given to only nine of approximately 250 local languages. Where those ethnic crafts, arts, and trades were presented in the school curriculum, they often diverged from the actual population, thus often failing to nurture the ethnic identity of students. Recognizing the potential relationship between school curriculum and the realization of the national policy, “Unity of Variety, ”“Muatan Lokal, ” as a specific subject was then identified as worthy of more time allocation in the curriculum. The program is considered to be a positive factor in sloving problems related to national unity as well as to national development.
    The introduction of “Muatan Lokal” was decided by the Education and Culture Ministry, as seen in Ordinance Number 412 of 1987. The Ministry has allotted 20% of all school hours for “Muatan Lokal” curriculum. In addition, it established a program with special consideration of local traits to be specified by local education officials. It can be said that the aims of “Muatan Lokal” are to establish community-based identity by means of both teaching local culture and fostering talents that aim at local development.“Muatan Lokal” is considered meaningful and is supported by many in the education sphere as well as in local communities.
    Nonetheless, there are critical issues to be considered when developing programs such as “Muatan Lokal.” The regulation of nationally versus ethnicallycentered education inevitably affects the balance of national and ethnic identity outcomes among students. Based on the 1994 decisions of the state education boards, “Muatan Lokal” was introduced in varying capacities which can be divided into three general categories.
    1) West Java and Middle Java teach only that culture that has been recognized in the past by the central Indonesian government.
    2) In West Sumatra “Muatan Lokal” is enforced according to national guidelines. Though the national guidelines are recognized the Local Board asserts its own identity as firmly as possible wherever there is an opportunity.
    3) In West Kalimantan, locally centered identities are developed and nurtured through recognizing and picking up those national cultural traits considered to be appropriate. The regulation between national and ethnic culture is quite positive.
    The initial outcomes of the new curriculum have contributed positively to a newer, more balanced, Indonesian identity that recognized and respects both national and ethnic cultures. The development, structure and process of the “Muatan Lokal” curriculum offer many points to consider in developing local-content education in other multicultural countries.
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  • A Case Study of “Madrasah” Diniyyah Puteri in West Sumatra
    Mina HATTORI
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 83-94,215
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: May 20, 2011
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    The purpose of this article is to analize the creation and development of the concept of “modernity” of “Madrasah”. In general, in Middle Eastern countries, “madrasah” means ordinary educational facilities. But in Indonesia, madrasah have appeared as a new and modern Islamic educational institution from the beginning of twentieth century. This article focuses on women's madrasah, “Diniyyah Puteri” as the pioneer example of madrasah. The creation and development of the concept of modernity are analyzed here.
    In the aspect of the “creation” of modernity, a lot of characteristics of madrasah could be seen among, 1) the name of school, 2) type of architecture, 3) introduction of the concept of “curriculum” and academic year, 4) introduction of “general subjects”, 5) use of textbooks published in Middle Eastern countries and in Holland, 6) the educational philosophy know as “Ibu Pendidik”, 7) Muslim's uniform attempt to maintain women's prestige.
    In relation to the “development” of modernity, the following features could be seen: 1) the activity of “Woman Role Development Service Unit (UP3W)” for adult women, 2) reorganization of madrasah as a formal education tool among Muslims, and the formation of a new network between madrasah and “sekolah”, accompanied by the develpoment of the national educational system.
    In conclusion, madrasah have contributed to the creation of the modernity of Islamic education and have created dynamic, new educational phenomena. Moreover, the development of madrasah have very much influenced traditional Islamic institutions such as “Pesantren” and can be seen as changing the relationship between madrasah, sekolah, traditional Islamic schools, the mosque and the home.
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  • Hiromitsu MUTA
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 95-107,216
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    Indonesia made lower secondary school education compulsory starting from the academic year 1994/95 as part of the sixth five-year plan that it implemented in the same year. The five-year plan is expected to further expand upper secondary school and higher education. Statistics on higher education in Indonesia have been under-developed for a long period of time. Therefore, this study employs information provided in a college directory bulletin as a measure for acquiring chronological data.
    By 1962 half of the existing national institutions of higher education had been founded and by 1964 this figure was three quarters. The number of national institutions founded after 1965 is thus small. On the other hand, half of the existing private institutions of higher education were founded by 1981 (and 3/4 by 1985). The ratio of the number of private schools to the total, based upon school statistics prepared by the Ministry of Education and Culture, has been over 90 percent, starting with the academic year 1983/84, and it was as high as 95 percent in the year 1992/93. The ratio of the number of students attending private schools to the total gradually increased from 40 percent in 1975 and reached a high level of 71 percent in the year 1992/93. This fact. indicates that the expansion of higher education is due mostly to the expansion of private school.
    It is, however, questionable whether the graduates of institutions of higher education, whose number is on the increase, are appreciated in the labor market according to their educational background. In general, the unemployment rate for the graduates of institutions of secondary education is high while those for graduates of institutions for primary and for higher education are low. However, the comparison of unemployment rates within age brackets shows that the unemployment rate is higher for graduates of higher education than for the rest.
    Unemployment of the highly educated is a waste of limited resources and can be a social problem. The unemployment rate of the highly educated would further increase if higher education is expanded without its contents being changed while the industrial structure remains almost the same. Plans for the expansion of higher education should include schemes for making the graduates competitive in the labor market.
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  • The Background of Increased Adult Student Enrollment in the 1970's and the Recurrent Education Movement Since the Early 1980's
    Yasuhiro DEAI
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 109-119,217
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    Australia has one of the highest levels of adult students who are 25 years old and over in higher education.
    There are three primary factors which caused the increase in this adult student enrollment from the 1970s. The first is that institutions tried to get rid of institutional barriers for adult student enrollment. The second is that women who were over 30 years old had fewer social barriers to participation in higher education than they had faced in the 1960s. The third is related to the employment sector. A single period of professional training immediately following secondary schooling became inappropriate. At the same time, qualification inflation occurred. Therefore, more adults began to retrain.
    In the early 1980s, the demand for higher education from school leavers as well as adults started to grow, but the commonwealth government couldn't deal with the sudden increase in demand. Therefore, many qualified young people who were facing unemployment were denied entrance. In reaction, the commonwealth government decided to give priority to teenagers, especially school leavers. Opportunities for access by adult students suffered as the demand for places for school leavers rose. The increase in adult students was halted in the middle of the 1980s.
    In higher education reform since 1988, the government has increased university places, but the demand, especially from school leavers, has continued to grow more than the government had expected. A number of institutions, however, gave preference to adult students and tried to expand provisions for postgraduate students. As a result, the unmet demand for higher education among school leavers rose to a higher level. The government then tried to introduce some policies to correct this problem. One of these would have imposed barriers on recyclers, most ofwhom are adult students. However, many people protested against this, and the policy was rejected in the Senate.
    Since the middle of the 1980s, the government has given less priority to opportunities for adults than for the younger generation. Even so opportunities for adults have been maintained because institutions highly evaluate them and people recognize the importance of opportunities for them. We can say that in Australian higher education, a recurrent educational system has taken root. It is expected that in the future Australian higher education will be seen less as a resource for the 17-19 year old cohort because of demographical and economic factors. Recurrent education will also increasingly shift to the postgraduate level as much of the workforce has initial qualifications.
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  • Analysis of Assistance Given to Primary Education
    Atsushi TAKEI
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 121-132,219
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    The growth of primary education in developing countries is essential for the development of society. However, the priority given to assistance for primary education is low. One of the reasons lies in difficulties inherent in primary education assistance. The purpose of this paper is to consider the effectiveness of primary education assistance through an analysis of APPEP (Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project).
    Before discussing APPEP, I examine the conditions related to primary education in Andhra Pradesh, A.P. is relatively backward in primary education, and the dropout rate in primary school is quite high (55.68% in 1993-94), even though the number of schools is not very small (1 school/5.59 km2). This suggests that the reason children leave school or don't go to school is not that they don't have a school to which they can commute, but that they don't feel it is necessary to go to school. We can point out two factors responsible for this. First, the quality of education is low. Second, children are an important source of labor in society.
    APPEP is supported by ODA from the U.K., both technically and financially. Phase 1 was carried out in 1984-87, a bridging program was carried out in 1987-89, and Phase 2 started in 1989 and will be completed in 1996. This paper discusses mainly Phase 1 of this project.
    The objectives of APPEP are:(1) improving human resources by enhancing the quality of the work of teachers and supervisors, and (2) providing new primary school classrooms of improved quality. Programs based on each purpose are called the Human Resource Development Programme (HRDP) and the School Building Construction Programme (SBCP).
    HRDP offered training programs to teacher educators, inspecting officers, and primary school teachers. HRDP was carried out through 6 kinds of training course or meetings. There are six principles in HRDP:(1) providing learning activities, (2) promoting learning by doing, (3) developing individual, group and class work, (4) recognizing individual differences, (5) using the local environment, and (6) creating an interesting classroom.
    SBCP offered 155 classrooms in 68 schools. The classrooms scheduled for construction were bigger than normal in order to do group work.
    The result of Phase 1 shows there were substantial changes in school practice. The number of dropouts decreased in the schools which were providedclassrooms through SBCP. At the time the research was done however there seemed to be less evidence that HRDP had an effect on decreasing dropouts.
    The significance of APPEP is:(1) the idea and constitution of HRDP provides a model for regional based local primary education projects, (2) it shows a multiangled approach to qualitative improvement of primary schools, and (3) it is a project based on a long term view and implemented step by step.
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  • An Educational Ideal
    Seiji FUKUTA
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 133-143,220
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    Twenty-three percent of Europeans believe that the sense of national identity will eventually give way to a sense of European identity. Sixty-two percent believe that in the European Union citizens should be conscious both of their national identity and of their European identity. We learn this from an opinion survey conducted in all 12 Member States in Autumn 1992. We are now seeing the emergence of a Homo europeus, a new people. The Single European Act of 1986 extended the Community' s field of action to new policies, so that a European dimension has been given to wide areas of economic and social life. The Treaty on European Union was signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1992. The most important innovation of the Treaty is undoubtedly the concept of Union citizenship.
    The European Economic Community (EEC) was set up in 1958, based on the Treaty of Rome. The right of free movement of labour (Article 48) and common vocational preparation (Article 128) have been asked of all Member States of the Community. Europeans have many problems, however, such as mother-tongue instruction and making sense of European identity.
    The Council and the Ministers of Education Meeting within the Council passed a resolution on the European Dimension in Education on 24 May 1988. On matters of education to teach about the European dimension, as in many other areas too, the Twelve cooperate with their neighbours. In England, for example, the Speaker' s Cross-party Commission on Citizenship was formed in December 1988. The NationalCurriculum Council, following the report of the Commission, composed Curriculum (Curriculum Guidance 8: Education forCitizenship) and recommended to learn the following main literature: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the European Convention on Human Rights (1950) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989).
    The pursuit of common European ideals are set on forming individual identity in plural fields; local (ethnic), national and international (European) levels. The three levels are not only clashing, but filling up and mixing.
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  • Akiko SHIBANUMA, Asahiro ARAI
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 145-163,221
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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    This paper aims at exploring the development of religious education and personal and social education after the 1988 Education Reform Act in England.
    We conducted a survey in September 1993 sending questionnaires to all the local education authorities in England. The questionnaires inquire about(1) thesituations of publication of agreed syllabi for religious education, (2) the practice of personal and social education, (3) the publication of guideline for personal and social education and(4) the relationship between religious education and personal and social education. On the bases of the data returned from 65 LEAs, we tried to survey agreed syllabi for religious education and guidelines for personal and social education from these local education authorities. By analyzing these materials we note the roles of religious education and personal and social education in reaching towards the aims of the Education Reform Act.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 167-169
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 170-172
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 173-177
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 178-179
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 180-181
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 182-183
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 184-185
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 186-187
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 188-189
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 192-193
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 194-195
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 196-197
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 198-199
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 202
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 203
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 204
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 205
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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  • [in Japanese]
    1995 Volume 1995 Issue 21 Pages 206
    Published: June 30, 1995
    Released: January 27, 2011
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