Interactive exchange of information and opinions on risk is required in the field of food-related risk communication, and effective methods for communication are explored. In the case of effects on health by radioactive substances derived from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant，people are extremely anxious about the health effects, regard government and media with distrust and tend to lack scientific information in face of the emergency, there is a compelling need for the interactive risk communication including elaborate information processing. This study aims to provide an interactive risk communication model and examine effectiveness of it through focus group communication. This model has the following characteristics; the purpose is not persuasion; scientific information that answers questions from participats is created through communication; experts make a presentation in two segments, followed by a group discussion only by participating citizens (‘horizontal discussion’). The examinations were conducted in Tokyo and Kyoto from June to August, 2011, on 51 people: 8 groups and confirmed the effectiveness by evaluation of the method and changes in knowledge and risk perception of participants.
This study explains detailed structure of relationships between manufacturers and retailers in Japan’s instant noodles industry by quantitative analysis of displaying of private brands (PBs) at various retail stores. The study contains qualitative analysis of published materials from related industries and enterprises. The results are verified with interviews to people in the industry and with data from a private research organization. Precedent studies have explained that PBs take influential part in establishing relationships between manufacturers and retailers. However, there is no study about policy and background of relationships, nor qualitative study of these relationships. The study shows that AEON group is strengthening its supply chain with Nissin (including Myojo) group. It also shows that Seven & i group keeps equal interval from big five manufacturers, i.e. Nissin, Toyo Suisan, Sanyo, Myojo and Ace cook. Co-op is very close to Toyo Suisan group, and, CGC handles more Nissin brands than any other brands. It becomes clear that major instant noodle manufacturers and major retailers are strengthening business relationships through instant noodle PBs. AEON’s direct delivery way of PBs from manufacturers by building self-delivery system may affect food system of NBs which usually goes through wholesalers to retailers. Recently, sales of instant noodle PBs by CVS and drugstores are increasing. It is expected relationships between manufacturers and CVSs and drugstores should be considered in future study of PBs distribution.