A number of people were killed caused by the 2011 Tohoku (Great East-Japan) Earthquake and its induced Tsunami. Evacuation before the arrival of Tsunami is important to survive, however, it might be sometimes difficult for the people who are in a coastal area to escape. To overcome this situation, self-floating evacuation facility has been proposed by Meguro(2011). In this study,two-dimensional spatial distribution of fluid force in Kochi area is analyzed assuming the Nankai Trough massive earthquake and Tsunami. First, Tsunami numerical modeling was conducted and the distribution of hydrodynamic force was calculated. Next, the force that acts on the self-floating evacuation facility was estimated by using the result of Tsunami numerical modeling. As the result, a maximum force acting on the facility was calculated as about 2,530 kN.
This paper presents experimental data to clarify Tsunami mitigation effect of the breakwater with arrays of steel tubular piles and the load of Tsunami. The model experiments were conducted to give a better understanding of the influence of the distance between the piles, the number of the row and the relative height of Tsunami. It turned out that the transmissivity of Tsunami is proportional to the distance between the piles. In particular, the greater number of the row reduced Tsunami load acting on each row of piles, with smaller load on the rows in the downstream side. Furthermore, in estimating the Tsunami load, the drag coefficient Cd was confirmed to be applied for multiple rows, whereas revised Tanimoto expression and reduction coefficient CG was confirmed to be applied for a single row.
Damage estimation system of structures during earthquakes was developed.This system measures deformation of a structure by a camera and delivers the damage level to building managers. Immediacy, understandability and efficiency of this system are valuable at emergent recovery. Although the difficulty of the spread of disaster preventive applications lies in utilizing less frequently, the uses of this system are proposed through not only emergency recovery but also recovery, reconstruction, normal times, and a normalization of applications leads to the growing of disaster preventive abilities.
This study aims at establishing methods for evaluating the preparedness for life continuity in condominiums, or evaluating whether the dwellers could continue their life at home during a great earthquake. Twelve risk factors were extracted by conducting interviews at affected condominiums. Questionnaire surveys were conducted to verify whether the factors were appropriate or not to represent the risk that ordinary condominium dwellers recognize. Evaluation items and measures were established for the twelve risk factors, and life continuity evaluation methods were developed. Studies were conducted in 72 cases and the validity of evaluation results was verified. It was also confirmed that evaluation scores could be increased by improving non-structural measures.
In order to develop a new method to evaluate quantitatively activities of voluntary organizations for disaster prevention, we conduct two kinds of survey. Based on obtained data by the first survey which was conducted on leaders of highly active voluntary organizations in Tokyo metropolitan, we estimated importance weight of each content of voluntary disaster prevention activities. Combining the weights and obtained data by the second survey on leaders of voluntary organizations in Hitachinaka city, we calculated evaluation scores which indicated degrees of activities of the each organization. Then, we categorized the organizations into ten groups by cluster analysis method and examined their weak points which required some improvement.
The grasping damage by SAR is suited to large scaled disaster such as an earthquake and tsunami. Especially, L-band SAR data can observe extensive areas at once. To analyze building damage caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami disaster, we applied a method to divide target area into rectangular analyzed areas for the evaluation of building damage. A number of method for estimating building damage at a rectangular tile scale have been proposed, however a suitable size of the tile has not been identified. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effective size for damage estimation by clarifying the relation between the number of buildings in the analyzed area.
During a scenario earthquake with MW9.0 along the Nankai Trough, not only strong motion but also huge tsunami is predicted in coastal area, Miyazaki City, Japan. In this study, first, based on temporary seismic observation records with high dense spatial location in the areas of interest, site amplification and phase effects were evaluated. Seismic waveforms in the areas of interest were then predicted based on the SMGA models considering the empirical site amplification and phase effects. Using the detailed distribution of several indices due to the predicted seismic waveforms, finally, we discussed the influence which the action of the strong motion has on tsunami evacuation.
In this paper, ground shaking characteristics and strong motions in residential land in Kanagawa Ward, Yokohama City, Japan are estimated based on temporary earthquake observation records. In particular, first, 33 seismographs installed with very high density at not only cutting sites but also banking sites in the residential land of interest. Seismic waveform records are then observed at the created 33 sites during some moderate earthquakes. Based on the analysis consequence of the observed seismic waveforms, moreover, site amplification factors and site phase effects focused on Tokyo Bay Area were evaluated. Finally, strong motion prediction was carried out in the residential land of interest during the Northern Tokyo Bay Earthquake based on the empirical site amplification and phase effects.
Some landslides occurred in the near-source region of the 1993 Southwest Hokkaido Earthquake. A large scale landslide and disaster occurred close to Okushiri Port. Therefore, to clarify the landslide mechanism, it is necessary to estimate strong motions at the landslide with sufficient accuracy, taking into account local site effects. In this study, seismic waveform at the landslide was estimated based on the characterized source model considering site amplification and phase effects. The site effects at Okushiri Town Office was used for the site effects at the landslide based on similarity of microtremor H/V spectra.
One of the effective tools to enhance local resilience to flood disasters is evidence-based contingency planning for communities, which is based on scientific approaches such as flood simulation, quantitative risk assessment. This paper proposes an effective method for local communities to make evidence-based flood contingency planning considering the dynamic change of inundation and applies it at one of the Asian flood prone area, Calumpit Municipality in the Pampanga River basin in the Philippines as a case study to verify the method.
Response activity of firefighting by residents, in addition to professional firefighters, is very important in order to reduce fire damage in case of simultaneous multiple fire after a big earthquake. On the other hand, behavior beyond the limit would bring loss of safety evacuation. Until when should residents take evacuation? This study describes a quantitative evaluation of the evacuation risk from post-earthquake fire in an urban area using the concept of “critical time of evacuation”, which is the time when people can stay at their point because reachability to the designated evacuation site is ensured under the condition of perfect disaster information. This evaluation model also consider “fire spread cluster” which means the last reach of the fire spread caused by a breakout of fire. The target of this case study is Tokyo special wards facing the densely and widely built-up area of wooden houses. In this paper, relationship between reachability or critical time of evacuation and breakout density of fire or fire spread speed is discussed.
This paper proposes a novel interactive hazard map. The paper first points out two problems of existing hazard maps. One problem is that users cannot easily locate and understand what they would like to know because a map contains too much information. The other problem is that users cannot combine different types of information to plan evacuation. In order to solve these problems, we propose an interactive hazard map with the following three functions: 1) the map enables users to choose information to be displayed. 2) It automatically chooses appropriate evacuation facilities given the user's position. and 3) It searches for a route from the user's position to the chosen evacuation facility. Experiment results show the proposed hazard map solves the above two problems.
The Great East Japan Earthquake came out the importance of NGOs on disaster response. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the routine conditions of collaborations between governments and NGOs from case studies about a disaster response and some emergency trainings after the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is required for governments and NGOs to act as a partner and to establish the horizontal network organization to share information and to coordinate the activities before disaster response. The network organization consists of local and non-local NGOs, councils of social welfare and some government departments. On disaster response, they exchange general information about disaster response and specific information about support of victims and they share current situations and future outlooks.
This study investigates emergency management organizational structure under which disaster operational staffs were dispatched to Minamisanriku town in 2011 from other local governments. We introduce five models of emeregecy management organizations: command and control, coordination, central coordination, local coordination, and direct command. According to our questionnaire survey on the staffs, we found that the direct command model was dominant, and proved that it was the reason why the town officials who had to manage the staff had huge burdens. To solve this problem, we suggested to enhaunce coordination mechanism of assistance team that consists of dispatched staffs, based on voluntary cooperation, not by commands and control.
This paper aims to investigate the factors which enable people to avoid risk without Risk-taking bias under uncertain loss that prospect theory suppose in the field of disaster prevention.In this analysis,Hyogo Prefecture Survey on Preparedness(N=1103, Response rate:39.4％) conducted by Disaster Reduction and Human Renovation Institution is used . As a result, it became clear that those who have high-disaster management literacy tend to choose avoiding risk as the hazard risk perception and Physical, Human damage perception get higher linearly. On the other hand, those who do not are prone to give up avoiding risk with moderate level of hazard risk perception and Physical, Human damage perception.
In Japan, it was found that 20-30% of people avoid purchasing agricultural products produced in Fukushima Prefecture in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster of March 2011. Conversely, many people state that they usually do not pay attention to where a product comes from while they are shopping. The reason this many people are still fearful of contaminated agricultural products from Fukushima Prefecture is that they are not familiar with the system for food inspection and its results. People are generally not knowledgeable about the process of monitoring agricultural products for radioactive substances, which involves testing all volume and all bags of rice in Fukushima Prefecture. It is the goal of public relations to make sure information about the inspection system and its results are properly publicized in order to reduce anxiety among the public over the safety of these agricultural products.
This paper intends to understand the background of evacuees' will to return or migration in the areas stricken by nuclear power plant disaster in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake and attempts to find out a solution for the preference of resettlement location. An interview was conducted for evacuated residents from an evacuation directive lift prepared area in the village of Kawauchi, Fukushima Prefecture. The main outcome of the interview is as follows: 1) The village was dispersed to wider areas and at the same time, each household consisting of the village also became separated in the evacuation process. 2) Regardless of their will to return to the village in the future, many evacuated residents have maintained their relation with the village. 3) In the village were resources many households had in common and some resources were inherent in specific households. The division of intention to return to the village has derived from the existence of the latter.
This article aims at illuminating the status of gender and diversity mainstreaming of municipal disaster preparedness policies at the community level in light of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Thirty activities by municipalities were analyzed. Major activities for this purpose were identified i.e. empowering female community disaster managers and jishubosaisoshikis (community-based organizations for disaster management), and factors to promote them were identified. They are 1) positioning jishubosaisoshikis so they can be an active agent of gender and diversity mainstreaming, 2) continuing support for female community disaster managers, 3) building collaborations among disaster prevention, gender equality and various other sectors at the local level.
We developed the volcanic disaster management education program to enhance "Zest for Lives" of children based on ADDIE process of Instructional Design. First, we conducted disaster awareness survey to elementary or junior high school students and their parents who live in volcanic hazardous area. We found that they learned only the knowledge of the volcano as a natural phenomenon in school or home, on the other hand, they shorted in knowledge of the corresponding action to protect themselves to volcanic disaster. Second, we developed and practiced the program at schools located in volcanic hazardous area and non-hazardous area. Then, we examined the effectivity and applicability of the program to children in schools. We set the learning objectives of the program: 1) to understand the volcano as a natural phenomenon, 2) to understand the damage and influence of volcanic disaster to residential area using volcanic hazard map, 3) to learn the corresponding action to protect themselves at the time of volcanic explosion.
Under heavy rain disasters, early evacuation is the most important issue for residents to avoid human casualties from it. However, many of those tend not to evacuate in the disasters, and this situation would be caused by some factors related to residents. From the viewpoint that there are some factors which prevent residents from evacuating in heavy rain disasters, in this paper, we reviewed 128 preceding papers and structurized these factors by the KJ method. On the basis of the result, we extracted problems of the current evacuation and proposed measures of prompting residents to evacuate.
It is essential for promoting the participation of the working generation of voluntary organization for disaster prevention to maintain it and make ones activities substantial. In order to clarify the measures to promote the participation of the working generation, we conducted two interviews and two questionnaire surveys in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture. The results are as follows:1) it is important to reduce the burden of the job title in neighborhood association and give the merits of joining it, 2) it is important to plan the events to enjoy in family, and 3) it is important to plan the events that they can image the situations at the time of disaster.
This study focused on the self-help housing reconstruction with relocation in Rikuzentakata City following the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to elucidate residential movement before and after the earthquake, changes in land use associated with the changes, and the process of the series of decisions made until reconstruction. In the case of residents with children or elderly family members, the decision making of residents revealed a progression in comparison with housing reconstruction projects due age limitations concerning loans, etc. Moreover, the resources that enabled the selfhelp housing reconstruction with relocation were enrollment in earthquake insurance, presence of family members with parent-child loans, transfer of land and provision of information by family members, relatives, or acquaintances.
Disaster reconstruction process and its pattern have been often discussed from the social point of views. By the way, the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami fit the deeply indented coastline of the Tohoku area. The disaster reconstruction in these areas seems to be strongly affected by the geographical factors. This study focused on the geographical factors on the land readjustment projects after the event and discussed the reconstruction patterns from the geographyical points. Furthermore, the most effective factor on the reconstruction pattern was made clear by the dicision tree analysis.
Temporary facilities for private businesses (e.g. stores, factories and offices) are built by the governments after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The purpose of this study is to understand the system of building the temporary facilities for business. The authors interviewed the independent administrative corporation, and analyzed materials from the agency. In conclusion, the institution was planed in order to support continuation and resumption of business. And it was changing in operation. There are a variety of temporary buildings because of flexibility of the system.
Since 1987 in Los Angeles, USA, CERT is a community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR) model. In comparison with CERT, potential roles were found for SBL, a community-based DRR program in Sendai, Japan. With different approaches, CERT and SBL both promote self-help and citizens’ mutual help. CERT first fosters individual volunteers and builds teams of trained volunteers; SBL fosters capacity of community-based DRR groups. CERT is national; SBL is implemented only by Sendai City. CERT training has modules based on individual interests and advanced training; SBL training is offered as a package.Results confirmed the importance of mutural learning from international as well as domestic experience for enhancing community-based DRR.
This paper aims to construct a spatially disaggregated population microdata set for the whole country based on the samples of anonymized records from the Japanese census and to present the applications in disaster analysis. Results showed that a spatially disaggregated microdata set was developed in a way that it agrees to small-areas census statistics by a spatial microsimulation and also, the microdata of 120 million individuals living in about 200 thousand districts were estimated with standard desktop PCs. Applications in disaster analysis at the neighborhood level were presented in order to discuss that microdata analysis provides very useful information for considering evacuation plans and allocations of relief supplies, housing reconstructions etc. based on detailed neighborhood’s characteristics.
We investigated disaster preparedness at kindergarten and nursery schools in Yamanashi prefecture, Japan. For this study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 kindergarten and nursery school teachers and administered questionnaire surveys to 287 kindergarten and nursery schools in Yamanashi prefecture. Results revealed that the kindergarten and nursery schools have achieved high levels of disaster preparedness, but low levels of mental health care for disaster victims. Moreover, the results showed that these schools must conduct information sharing about disaster preparedness activities with parents and guardians.
The study examined how a poor and a rich village exist on a flood plain. Most poor households have lived for generations in deeply inundated blocks of land near the river. The area used to be the center of river transportation where land ownership varies by resident. After roads were constructed, people moved out, but most landless households remained. The condition of poor residents was compared to rich villagers. The survey shows that the poor group’s houses were inundated deeper and longer than any other groups during the 2011 flood. They had no resources to repair their old wooden houses damaged by 3 months of inundation. To address poverty reduction on the flood plain we encouraged development which takes into account the land title of the poor residents and financial assistance to reinforce their damaged buildings to support living there.
The underground mall maintained around major cities in Japan is 78 places. In addition, those architectural area is approximately 1,110,000 square meters. In such situation, in the underground mall, a thing passing in 30 years or more after construction is over 80%. It is necessary to find the sustainability to affect safety and maintenances to modify an earthquake or a flood to utilize the underground mall as important urban infrastructure in the times pushing forward urban re-production of Japan.This paper performs evaluation by the index which paid its attention to such safety and sustainability about the underground mall, and aims at offering the information which is consulted about the measure which should be implemented in future.