This study aimed to discover specific schemes for promoting programming education in primary schools, and conducted an attitude survey of teachers, using exploratory data analysis to extract hindering and motivating factors. From 443 responses, the analysis extracted “lack of teaching aids, etc.,” “recognition of disparity,” and “resistance to the use of ICT” as hindering factors. Further, “structures encouraging promotion,” “information provision,” and “human resource assistance” were extracted as motivating factors. Through a covariance structure analysis conducted to reveal the relationships between the six extracted factors, a model was developed to resolve hindering factors using motivating factors, resulting in a model that showed that the three motivating factors (“structures encouraging promotion,” “information provision,” and “human resource assistance”) were interrelated, and that linked “information provision” to the hindering factor “lack of teaching aids, etc.,” “human resource assistance” to the hindering factor “resistance to the use of ICT,” and improvements in “lack of teaching aids, etc.” and “resistance to the use of ICT” to the resolution of disparity in skills and knowledge of teachers and children.
In this research, we discuss about art appreciation workshop as a process of knowledge building and clarify how providing information by the navigator (facilitator) contributes to the viewers’ knowledge building. From an interview with 14 students and participation observation, providing information in appreciation was classified as "information for thinking" and "information for confirmation". "Information for thinking" is provided to promote knowledge building by combining with the expression of the work, and “information for confirmation” is provided as control to the discussion. By analyzing the protocol of the workshop, we found out that information for thinking is provided to promote knowledge building by combining with the expression of artworks, and information for confirmation is provided to conduct dialogue avoiding digressing from the subject.
This study examines criterion-related validity of sentences in students’ application form for recruiting new employees, using collected data from a Japanese company. Based on t-test results, significant differences in word frequency were verified in 19 words between higher and lower appraisal in job interviews. Correlation analysis showed that partial words have significant correlation with the big five personality factors. Analysis methodology was proposed.
This study aimed to develop a self-rating scale on smartphone behavioral addiction, using which university students can evaluate how smartphones should be used. We surveyed addiction scale created by researchers for students using smartphone who were enrolled in a university in the metropolitan area. A total of 587 valid responses were obtained. We surveyed 243 males and 344 females. Using exploratory factor analysis, the following five factors were identified from 20 items: “self-dominance”, “erosion of life”, “withdrawal symptoms”, “relapse of addiction”, and “uncontrollable phone call”. In covariance structure analysis, GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) =0.931, AGFI (Adjusted GFI) =0.909, CFI (Comparative Fit Index) =0.932, and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) =0.052. A significant correlation was observed between smartphone utilization time. This scale showed reliability and validity.
The aim of the present study is to develop effective educational methods and applications for online information retrieval to assist unskilled university students. We propose that the key learning factor should be the accumulation of knowledge regarding different types of websites and their content through the retrieval experience. As the first step toward this aim, we focused on retrieval processes after generating search results (reading comprehension of the results, choosing appropriate sites, and viewing the website pages). We then verified whether enhancing the ability to read site attributes (types of websites and their quality of content) improved adaptive behavior. This paper presents the results of browsing experiences by comparing two teaching methods and the prototype of the application. In one method, instructions were given before browsing. In the other, instructions were given sequentially using questions while browsing. The results indicate that sequential instructions lead to adaptive retrieval behavior and that the prototype providing the instructions performs well.
This study examined whether picture-book reading by an adult to children could improve children’s cognitive abilities such as vocabulary, short-term memory and working memory. In the experimental group, the same picture-books were repeatedly read for each three days and children were asked to memorize the target words marked with a sticky note. In the control group, children were engaged in the picture-book reading activities as usual, in which different books were read randomly every day. We conducted four cognitive tasks — verbal and visuo-spatial working memory capacity, short term memory, and vocabulary — before and after the intervention period. Results showed that significant improvement in the vocabulary task in the experimental group, but not in the control group. In regard to the influence of the frequency of reading by parents at home, verbal working memory marginally improved in the high frequency group. These results suggest that picture-book reading in group and at home would have different effect on children’s cognitive abilities.
The purpose of the present study was to explore structure of knowledge of vector and effects of achievement goals and engagement on knowledge of vector in high school students. High school students (N =172) completed questionnaires. The results were as follows: (a) “Problem on reproducing basic facts and formulas” and “routine problem solving in Vector” consisted of 1 factor, “Knowledge of Vector”. (b) Mastery goal and performance approach goal were positively correlated with knowledge of vector through engagement. (c) Behavioral and emotional engagement was positively correlated with knowledge of vector. (d) Especially, emotional engagement had an important role in promoting knowledge of vector.
In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with mid-level employees who require reflective support to find out the experiences that formed their work values and beliefs. The interviews were analyzed using the Trajectory Equifinality Approach (TEA). Results showed that through the experiences of “confronting the challenges arising from work,” “assuming new positions through transfers or reassignment,” and “having to deal with unexpected complications despite being entrusted with a high-responsibility job that must be completed alone,” the employees struggled with conflicts between the expectations and demands of superiors, colleagues, and clients and an organizational environment that concentrates on work achievement. The employees deepened their understanding of how they engaged with their work, not only through their experiences of success but also through those of failure. Through these, the employees became conscious of their work values and beliefs. Such work values and beliefs included not only “role norms as a functioning member of society,” “performing work autonomously,” and “contributing to others,” all of which had been advocated as appropriate work values and beliefs held by business people, but also “enhancing both personal and work life.” Finally, we examined the effects that reflective support provided by superiors had in establishing mid-level employees’ work values and beliefs, as well as supporting their growth toward becoming experts.
How do loose social relationships engage one’s deepening of interest? The purpose of this study is to clarify how loose networks of practice, contrasting with dense communities of practice, engage hobbyists’ deepening of interests from the viewpoint of hobby as interest pursuit. Amateur photography in the digital era was selected as a case of hobbies. Interviews about interest and hobby social relationships with 14 amateur photographers in the digital era were conducted. The result shows existence of “inspiring neighbors” and “unspecified audiences” as networks of practice. “Inspiring neighbors” visualize diverse hobbyists who independently pursue their interests “Unspecified audiences” give feedbacks to works. These behaviors of networks of practice become objects of deeper interests or encourage further exploration of deeper interests. While these networks of practice were sometimes formed by SNS, they were also formed by face-to-face activities in the world of hobbies such as exhibitions and photography trips.
The aim of this study was to conduct panel surveys at two points in time on people ranging in age from their teens to 70s and compare the effects of internet use among different generations on their offline interpersonal relationships and psychological withdrawal. Our analysis revealed that there were differences among adolescent, adult, and elderly generations in variables concerning internet use, offline interpersonal relationships, and psychological withdrawal. With regard to the effect of internet use on the latter two characteristics, our results indicated the possibility that such use may partially worsen offline interpersonal relationships, leading to the onset of psychological withdrawal in adolescents. Aside from that, however, more frequent use of the internet generally promoted offline interpersonal relationships and reduced psychological withdrawal.
In the present study, we hypothesized that expressive writing facilitates conflict resolution, which in turn leads to stress reduction and improved academic test performance. In addition to this, the effects would be promoted if the texts were structured (other’s point of view, causality, reflection, emotions, organized).79 elementary school students were asked to write about an interpersonal conflict once every two days for five days. The results showed that expressive writing could reduce stress and high structured group (participants wrote less emotions) decrease in knowledge and understanding of arithmetic, low structured group (participants wrote about some or none emotion) got low scores compared with high structured group. This indicates that expressive writing can reduce stress and improve academic performance in elementary school students, but it is necessary to consider how to write effective expressions.
Recently, lesson study sessions are being established as an attempt to support the development of teachers’ ability to conduct a class in university education. This study focused on novice faculty and aimed to clarify the characteristics of the session discourse and its influence on the subsequent teaching practices. In order to examine the effectiveness of lesson study sessions for the Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) Program in the Graduate School of Letters at Kyoto University, discourse analysis and class VTR analysis were conducted for the novice teacher who continuously participated in the PFF Program. The results showed that the discourse tended to focus more on the class contents and explanations than class objectives and assessment. As for the influence of the discourse of lesson study sessions on teaching practices, students’ discourse or the discourse of the alternative plan found to be easier to be reflected. On the other hand, it was also found that the suggestions presented by the alternative plan were not necessarily reflected in the teaching practices.
Through this study, the system to support scoring in written tests has been developed and evaluated in both “subject teacher system” and “classroom teacher system” in primary and secondary schools in Japan. This system enabled to list all images of students’ answers to the same question, taking the advantage of the previous research. It implemented new functions for each teacher system; “Area Setting Package Function” for classroom teachers which enables them to adopt commercial tests, and “Multiple Class Choosing Function” for subject teachers which enables them to score tests for plural classes. Moreover, in order to reduce the number of clicks in the operation to score tests, teachers only click to incorrect answers in this system. Using this system resulted in shortening the scoring time by 44.0% for subject teachers to score tests and 42.9% for classroom teachers. These experiments verified that this scoring support system functioned to reduce the teachers’ time for scoring tests in primary and secondary schools.
“Kounai-ken”, the training for teachers within school, have been played a essential role for Japanese education. School teachers can develop their own growth and establish the relationship among them for their learning about their jobs through “Kounai-ken”, then it can serve to lead the effective school improvement. In this way “Kounai-ken” has the multi-function for teachers. However, there is the difference in the meaning of “Kounai-ken” among teachers, so that “Kounai-ken” can not necessarily play the role for them. This study focuses on what the meaning of “Kounai-ken” is for teachers. We used two methods, questionnaire survey and metaphor-making task to explore the meaning of “Kounai-ken”. The participant is 120 elementary and junior-high school teachers. We found out that the teachers tend to lack awareness about the the aspect of making report as their research product compared to the aspect as the place of individual learning of "Kounai-ken". In addition, from the answers obtained by the metaphor-making task, it suggested that the negative images for "Kounai-ken" include their negative recognition for the extracurricularity of class presentation and preparation, and the dissatisfaction about the limited their freedom at inquiry process and the unclearity of its product.
The present study investigated the influence of strengthening collective identity and individual identity on the conformity to negative statements among peer group at the time of instruction about SNS’s character. A total of 114 undergraduates participated in experiment using hypothetical scenarios, and were divided into 3 groups; strengthening collective identity group, strengthening individual identity group, and control group. The results showed that the instruction about SNS’s character did not inhibit conformity when collective identity was strengthened, while it inhibited conformity when individual identity was strengthened depending on the type of scenarios. Those results, which were shown after controlling the interpersonal conformable attitude as personality factor, indicated that it is difficult to inhibit conformity because of the circumstantial trait of SNS. It is suggested that the information ethics education should be done considering those traits of SNS.
This study aimed to elucidate the status of the acquisition of operational skills pertaining to spreadsheet skills in university students enrolled in teacher training programs. Spreadsheets are widely used in society and the ability to use spreadsheet skills greatly influences work effectiveness. The results of this study revealed that students had mastered the commonly required spreadsheet skills through other applications. However, it was suggested that skills specialized in spreadsheet software were not sufficiently acquired. We also found that many students lacked confidence in typing and felt that smartphone input was faster than PC typing. In addition, the group who answered questions regarding PCs and preferred “I like” rather than “I don’t like,” “I’m better” over “I’m weak,” or “Useful” rather than “Useless” clearly felt that their spreadsheet skills were more advanced. It is necessary to further improve the basic ICT skills of teacher training university students to improve the ICT utilization skills.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between cooperative learning activities with peer and metacognitive learning strategies. Forth to sixth grade children participated in a longitudinal study with three time points in a year. A path analysis revealed that reciprocal learning in time 1 predicted metacognitive learning strategies in time 2, which in turn, were associated with reciprocal learning and peer modeling in time 3. In addition, metacognitive learning strategies in time 1 predicted peer modeling in time 2. Educational practices which promote metacognitive learning strategies in cooperative learning with peers are discussed.