Writing teachers have long proclaimed the belief that good writing emerges from the author’s authentic voice. However, when it comes to writing scientific texts, objectivity is often viewed as a coherent and stable ideal, and science writers are often expected to hide their interpretive activities and rhetorical identities. This article reports on initial steps towards developing materials that could help teachers and students recognize that recent scientific texts do, in fact, present author's voices, attitudes and perspectives, which put readers in dialogue with an author. Focusing on value and orientation markers as a repertoire of resources available for writers to organize a discourse, I analysed a corpus of research articles to explore how the author’s linguistic/rhetorical choices have changed in scientific writing in different disciplines over the past 50 years (from 1970 to 2020). The findings showed that there has been a significant increase in the use of lower value markers (i.e., hedges) and a significant decrease in higher value markers (i.e., boosters), implying that authors of recent scientific texts tend to avoid rigid proposition, stay reserved and show a high degree of deference to the readers. The findings also showed that there has been a significant increase in the use of first-person pronouns, indicating that authors of recent scientific texts tend to demonstrate their personal involvement in their own research explicitly. The overall results indicate that academic discourse is not static but could change over time in response to a paradigm shift in the scientific community.
This study investigated a lesson that promotes thinking that captures the essence of social phenomena. The content of learning was structured into "concrete facts," "individual essence," and "universal essence." Within the unit, we organized "a process of associating a plurality of concrete facts to inquiry common points" and "a process of considering the properties that can be utilized for other phenomena in social phenomena". As a result, it became clear that understanding the individual essence is promoted by grasping multiple concrete facts and exploring the common points. It was shown that the understanding of the universal essence could be promoted by examining which properties of the individual essences that were grasped there could be applied to other events in the proximity region. In the above process, a collaborative and exploratory learning process was organized: (1) various exploration by individuals, (2) association of various thoughts in the whole class, and (3) individual explorations utilizing the associated thoughts. It was suggested that some of the students who related a lot of information in (1) and (3) achieved understanding of the universal essence.
The purpose of this study was to extract and classify learners' idea selection and idea improvement processes in knowledge building activities, and to clarify the conditions that lead to high learning outcomes. Based on the reflective notes submitted to the CSCL environment by the university students who participated in the PBL, we examined the temporal changes in the degree centrality coefficients of nouns by using social network analysis of dialogue and conducted a cluster analysis of them. In addition, a qualitative analysis of video recordings of classroom activities was conducted to supplement the quantitative analysis. From these results, it revealed that the following conditions were necessary to improve learning outcomes: (1) making promisingness judgments that take into account the possibility of development when selecting ideas, (2) selecting from multiple ideas rather than sticking to one idea, and (3) ensuring consistency between ideas and supporting data.
To better understand how experiential learning and reflective support is provided to mid-level employees, we conducted semi-structured interviews with managers who balance organizational performance with the developing their subordinates. The interviews were analyzed based on the modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA). We found that the managers managed the business in accordance with the Plan–Do–Check–Action cycle, based on a mid-term plan for about 2–3 years, which integrated their perspective on work and the developing their subordinates. Through the management process, mid-level employees were faced with a gap between the role expectations and initial plans of the organization and the actual actions and results. Furthermore, the managers worked on conveying the significance of experience without missing the point when mid-level employees’ awareness peaked. Moreover, the managers performed this through active self-reflection and by deepening their understanding of the importance of improving their managerial actions and developing their subordinates. Finally, we explored the way management ought to be to provide experiential learning and reflective support effectively to mid-level employees.
The ability of children to compare sizes develops in a u-shaped manner. However, the underlying reason and the developmental process concerning this ability or strategies used in size comparison remain unclear. Previous studies have examined young children of different ages at the same time, and they involved choosing the larger or smaller of two presented figures. Thus, with children who were three years old in June 2017 as participants, we examined changes in judgment ability and judgment strategies over three years. The children were asked to draw a figure larger or smaller than the presented figures. This study showed that four-year-old children judged size horizontally. However, with older age, children judged size both horizontally and vertically.
Nationwide, training programs for school teachers have been developed and implemented to promote ICT-based education. However, many of them are not customized to a particular subject or type of school. Hence, teachers are not able to carry out what they learned in the training. Therefore, we describe the development and implementation of the junior high school teacher training program for acquiring competencies to teach mathematics utilizing ICT measured its effectiveness. 13 teachers participated in the training. The participants and their students answered a questionnaire survey, and their responses were positive for four levels of the Kirkpatrick model. In fact, some questionnaires were administered to 174 students taught by seven teachers who participated in the training, before and after the training. The results showed some improvements in their motivation and activities, and suggest that our training program is useful to improve the instructional skills of junior high school mathematics teachers in utilizing ICT.
This study examined the effects of an integrated lesson conducted for half a year in a fourth-grade social studies class． The examination was made with respect to two issues: how the lesson’s conceptualization and generalization may aid with thinking skills in social studies and how the utilization of learning strategies matches the problem-solving process． The children wrote answers to questions that covered two major study units (four smaller study units) in their notebooks． These answers were compared before and after each study unit． The results indicated that the children’s conceptualization and generalization were stimulated after the completion of three smaller study units and two major study units． Based on a questionnaire survey and a learning plan formulated by the children， this study also proposed a learning method that matches the problem-solving process in social studies and examined the effects of gradually delegating the use of learning strategies to students． The results indicated that the children began to use learning strategies and that the quality of their learning plan had improved． The results of the present study suggest that a new perspective may be possible in research on social studies classes， which has tended to focus on discussions regarding the learning content．
We proposed a recommendation-type dialogue system for public relation in universities to support collection of information, responding to potential requests in consideration of personal attributes. Specifically, a function to recommend information, using the results of preference analyses by past and real-time query histories and information recommended by universities, was implemented. As a result of evaluation of the recommend method and introducing the system, the effectiveness to support collection of information are shown by increase in the average number of queries and questionnaire results.
Previous research has revealed that although participating in informal science education can promote participants' learning motivation for science, it is only effective in attracting those with high motivation for, or interest in, science and technology. In this paper, we conducted a scientific workshop based on a superball scooping game in a shopping mall, in order to test whether such a workshop can attract people with a wide range of interests and levels of motivation. Our findings revealed that this kind of workshop could attract more representative participants in terms of their interests and learning motivation towards science than the previous workshop had.
This study investigated the effects of diversive curiosity as a personal trait on learning performance and as a characteristic of extensive listening materials on learning performance and motivation. The relationship between diversive curiosity as a personal trait measured in the pre-test and learning performance thereafter was examined. The results showed that the effect of the degree of diversive curiosity on learning performance was limited. Additionally, two different kinds of extensive listening materials were prepared: experimental material (E material) that would satisfy learners’ diversive curiosity at a higher degree and control material (C material) that would do so at a lower degree. The participants were divided into two groups: the experimental group (E group) provided with E material and the control group (C group) with C material. As a result of the comparison, it was suggested that E material boosted motivation more than did C material, whereas it was unclear whether E material promoted learning performance more. Besides, listening skills and interest in listening were improved regardless of the difference in the materials.
In this study, we propose a TA (Teaching Assistant) action recording system to reflect learning support behavior using first-person angle video. In order to support learners flexibly, TA is required to think and act independently. It is expected to arouse awareness to develop independence by reflecting the learning support behavior. However, it can be a burden to check the entire video that is recorded during exercises. To solve this problem, we have developed the system that estimates actions from the data of the accelerometer worn by TA and presents them as clues while reflecting the learning support behavior. From the results of experiments in which TAs reflected using the system, it was possible to identify the learning support behavior of TAs with an accelerometer. By presenting the clues, the reflection time of the video was shortened for all TAs. It was suggested that TA could efficiently reflect the learning support behavior by using the system.