This paper discusses the design principles for collaborative learning environments based on the Emergent Division of Labor (EDL) theory. In recent research in the learning sciences, two theories of regulation of learning have emerged; Shared Epistemic Agency (SEA) and Socially Shared Regulation of Learning (SSRL), which aim to theorize group-level of epistemic agency and metacognitive regulation of collaborative learning. We will introduce the theories of SEA and SSRL, research in CSCL with systems related to the two theories, and following the current trend in research, will discuss and elaborate on the EDL theory and the design principles for the development of the learning environments aimed at fostering the students’ full participation in collaborative learning. We will then propose three additional design principles for the collaborative learning environment based on the EDL theory.
This paper describes how the data acquired from the accelerometer sensor worn by a learner in a collaborative learning situation can be utilized to guess and estimate collaborations between learners. The frequency of body movement can be used to guess the state of activity of the learner, and the difference of frequencies between two persons, i.e., synchronization of two, can be utilized to judge the similarity of their activities. We proposed using this similarity to guess the strength of ties of collaboration between two in a target period of analysis. We tested the validity of this proposed method by accelerometer data recorded in actual real-world collaborative learning projects, and the result justified our method of detecting collaboration. Also we discussed the limitation of our proposed method.
Students tend to engage in monotonous and passive learning, such as learning only by watching the video. Therefore, devising effective videos to promote students’ learning, such as by encouraging students to engage in problem solving through learning activities, is required. In this study, we focused on mathematics education at the beginning of the study; we developed a video making method based on the ‘constructive approach’ of Nakahara(11). And we aimed to promote proactive learning of students in an instructional video. To see the effects of learning using the video with the developed method, we performed an experiment with college students. The results suggested the method was effective in several ways: (1) It improves the understanding of the learning content, (2) It improves the motivation to proactively learn, (3) It promotes the construction of knowledge through learning activities, and (4) It promotes reflection on the learning activities, deepening students’ thoughts on the topic.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the differences of the discourse content by the bus crew of experience and video presentation conditions. As a result, under the conditions to predict the traffic others should be noted in the video as a clue, most discourse has become active. In this condition, accident information is not shown to the participants from the beginning. And in order to draw the opinions that based on their experience and the fact from the less experienced driver, it is necessary that the leaders to intervene actively in the conversation. It is possible for experienced drivers to recall a confirmation action necessary for safe operation in a small clue, even without the video, the amount of the remarks in the conditions, it can be a measure of the level of understanding to the safe operation.
This paper discusses an educational practice on the subject of convenience store business model and information technology (IT) utilization in the model. The lesson is designed for the first year university student providing with an opportunity to think about the inevitability of the business model and the significance of IT to support the model. To achieve this goal, the students watch documentary video dealing with IT utilization in the convenience store and the initiation process of the convenience store business model, then they write reports on the documentary and the reports are distributed to all the students to compare their own thoughts with others. The lesson was conducted in 2015 and 2016. It was evaluated by questionnaire survey and analysis of the reports.
In this paper, we discuss the possibility of video streaming simply recorded “chalk and talk” lectures as review materials via LMS. We have recorded chalk and talk lectures in a course conducted by the first author and streamed them as review materials over the Internet via the LMS of our university for several years. On reviewing the view history of the videos, we found that more than 10％ of the students accessed the videos of the course, as the LMS became widely used among the students, and even some of the students accessed every single video. Therefore, in this study, we investigated how often students watched the lecture videos of the course. We also surveyed student evaluations of it, their purpose for watching the lecture videos, and how they watched them. We found that most of the students browsed parts of the lectures of which they felt they had some difficulty in understanding or where they wanted to learn more. Finally, we confirmed the possibility of video streaming lectures via LMS, as review materials, even if they were simply recorded videos of conducted lectures.
Based on an observational study of astronomy education using a tangible earth system, this paper aims to elicit implications for effective learning procedure for tangible learning environments. By analyzing the experiment based on “embodied design” concept, we found that, when appropriate instruction is not provided, intuitive operability of tangible user interface at times rather disturbs learners’ thinking opportunities. We also found that by properly limiting the information to show learners, the system can make learners be more conscious of the meaning of manipulating tangible objects and result in better understanding of the learning content.