The authors have proposed a method for grasping the discharge of household food waste, which is compatible with SDG target 12.3. In this paper, the results of sorting analysis based on the proposed methodology, conducted in 6 local authority areas in Japan will be compared and discussed. The percentage of food waste in general waste is higher in rural areas than in highly urbanised areas. Also the proportion of avoidable food waste within total food waste is higher. A larger share of raw foodstuffs that require preparation, including home grown vegetable contributes to this difference. Probably this reflects the lifestyle in rural areas where vegetable gardens and cooking from raw materials is more prevalent than in urbanised areas. Similar differences were observable within urbanised areas between single person households and family households.
The sorting categories used in this methodology, which focuses on stages of food flow in households, is effective in identifying the background of differences between areas, target behaviours for reducing food waste, and assessing the efficacy of reduction measures.
Awareness raising campaigns for reducing household waste have been implemented in various ways by local governments in Japan. However, there is still no study on comparative analysis of those about the direct effect on the waste reduction or indirect effect on it by promoting other policies such as waste collection fees. The final goal of this research is to conduct such analysis on all the campaigns. This year, we collected text information of 500 campaigns from 158 local governments, and categorized those by text-mining analysis. Based on the frequent words, those campaigns were divided in 13 major themes and each of them were divided in 10 intervention ways toward residents. It was characterized that many local governments seemed to focus on food waste reduction as showed by a variety of the intervention ways. For near future, we plan to implement a questionnaire to local governments in Japan by developing questionnaire form based on the result of this categorization.
The study revealed the effects of intervention to prevent littering around rivers caused marine waste. We used environmental and situational factors to prevent littering as intervention. Investigation was conducted in the MIYAGAWA basin (Okayama Prefecture) and TENPAKUGAWA basin (Mie Prefecture). First, we measured baseline on the amount of littering (5 weeks) and mowed after period of measured baseline. After these periods, we conducted interventions suited each area (located LED lights, flowerbed, or picture drawn by children) each 5weeks. The result showed the amount of littering was decreased comparing the baseline. Furthermore, the amount of littering was decreased more by conducting intervention suited each area.
We archived the waste management statistics data in Japan for half a century. Archived data includes 1) PDF files of the reports from 1972, 2) long-term data from 1971 to 2016 (except facility data) with a viewer, and 3) facility data from 1992 to 2016. The viewer enables us to look at time-series data in every municipality’s population category.
The life cycle assessment of nuclear power generation has been widely conducted to evaluate its environmental impacts. Meanwhile, the assessment of life cycle resource use has yet to be fully executed. In most existing studies, the boundary of resource use has not included the waste generated during the resource mining. A comprehensive resource-use evaluation is required for well-understanding of nuclear power generation. Therefore, in this study, the resource efficiency of nuclear power generation is analyzed from viewpoint of mining activity based on the concept of the total material requirement (TMR). In particular, the effectiveness of the recycling system of spent fuel and radioactive waste, such as the Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel usage and thorium fuel cycles, is evaluated. It was found that the change of different mining methods and the usage of MOX fuel mitigates the TMR per kWh (specific TMR) of nuclear power generation approximately by 60 % and 40 %, respectively. From this result, considering the mining method and promoting the introduction of MOX fuel usage would contribute to a significant improvement of specific TMR, leading to mitigation of environmental impacts caused by land disturbances through mining activities.
Along with the increase in demand for road transportation, the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including cars and motorcycles, is expected to increase continuously. In practice, the vehicle sector contributes to approximately 5% of the industrial wastes around the world. Notably, the proper treatment and recycling system, particularly in developing countries such as Vietnam, has yet to be fully developed, causing vital environmental pollution and the dissipation of resources. Thus, designing the appropriate management plan of the ELVs in such countries is of significant importance to establish a recycling-based society.
The authors have addressed so far the issues of motorcycles, which are used as major transportation means in Vietnam, particularly with a focus on gasoline motorcycles. Meanwhile, it is expected that the share of electric motorcycles will increase, resulting in the incremental disposal of different materials which are not used in gasoline motorcycles.
Therefore, this study firstly developed the inventory data by disassembling the discarded electric motorcycle and analyzing its composition. Then, the number of total motorcycles and the amount of materials contained in obsolete motorcycles generated in Vietnam were estimated by considering the transition in the motorcycle model from gasoline to electric. This estimation was performed by using the population balance model, logistic function, and Weibull distribution. Through the analysis, it is estimated that the number of discarded motorcycles in 2030 (2,358,000 units) will increase by 1.36 times compared to that in 2000 (1,733,000 units).
The strategies of disposal mitigation and resource recycling treatment for discarded motorcycles generated in Vietnam were further discussed based on several scenarios.
This study focused on food loss from business sectors, which accounted for more than half of domestic food loss in Japan. The author aimed to get basic information which can contribute to policy prioritization and planned promotion of 3Rs of food loss from business sectors in Okayama prefecture. In particular, the author explored the detail composition and balance between supply and demand of food loss through 1) estimation of generation amount by municipality and industrial category, and 2) estimation of utilizable potential of food loss by target population of foodbank in Okayama prefecture. The author also focused on food loss generated from supermarket A in Okayama prefecture and implemented 3) scenario estimation of GHG emission and cost on 3Rs of food loss to reveal their advantages and disadvantages, including utilization as original food purpose by foodbank and recycling by composting and feed conversion.
This study estimates the flows of plastics in Japan originating from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and the flows of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) contained in those plastics. Results show that WEEE plastics are mainly recovered as mixed plastics or shredder residues. In 2017, the most recent year for which detailed data are available, a large proportion of recovered mixed plastics were being exported. However, owing to China’s import ban on post-industrial plastic waste, the amount of exported mixed plastics was expected to significantly decrease after 2018. While this is sure to increase domestic processing of mixed WEEE plastics, it appears that a substantial quantity of the recycled pellets from WEEE plastics was still being exported in 2019. The results of this study show that a large proportion of BFR-containing plastics in the bulk mixed plastics that are processed are removed through wet specific-gravity separation and X-ray sorting and then incinerated, indicating that a large fraction of the BFRs contained in the original mixed WEEE plastic is being removed from the recycling chain.
About 60% of the chemical substance emissions reported under the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) system is the amount of chemical substances transferred to waste management. It is important to understand the actual flow of chemical substances in industrial waste treatment, which is the destination of the transfer, in order to establish a comprehensive chemical substance management system. For this purpose, we report the result of the connection between the amount of chemical substances transferred to industrial waste treatment in a prefecture and the entrusted amount of industrial waste treatment described in the industrial waste disposal performance report.
The industrial waste is transferred from the discharge site to its final disposal site after being recovered, reduced in volume and rendered harmless by intermediate treatment. It is useful to understand the actual situation of this distribution, analyze the factors that cause it, and show the structure of the industrial waste market to predict the demand of the waste disposer, to select an economical disposal site for the generator, and to monitor the inappropriate disposal for the government. We have been developing the flow data linking the logistics of industrial waste generated from each discharge site to the intermediate treatment, final disposal or recycle site by using the information in the administrative reports submitted by the dischargers and the disposers to the authorities. In this article, we report on the results of the analysis of the factors that cause logistics by adding treatment fee data to the database developed in a municipality, drawing the geographical flow of materials, that is, the logistics of industrial waste.
In this study, we implemented the“Reduce Food Waste by Organizing Your Fridge”Campaign which encouraged three target behaviours; “Use food which is soon spoiled first”, “Put food that need to be used up soon at eye level of the fridge”, “Check your fridge before you shop”, in collaboration with Seika-cho, Kyoto Prefecture. In this campaign, we provided media publicity to all town residents, including distribution of brochures to all households. We also conducted a door-to-door survey for all households in a model districts, with explaining this campaign and distributing clips with magnets to prompt target behaviours. Based on the waste collection amount and waste composition before and after the campaign in the model districts, we estimated about 30% reduction of food waste. However, no clear reduction in food waste was observed in other areas. Establishment and implementation of a more accurate method for estimating the reduction effect, verification of the sustainability of the reduction effect in the model district, and examining policies for expanding the results of the model districts, are future challenges.
So far, I have conducted (1) basic research on social positioning and systems for Environmental Learning Facilities and Equipment of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Disposal Facilities (hereinafter referred to as facilities) in JAPAN. Next, I carried out (2) a study of the possibilities of facilities and equipment, which points out the issues at the planning stage. In this research, I focused on the relationship with the stakeholders (viewpoints of interested parties) on the opposite side of (2) (installer‘s viewpoints). Then, (3) Consider improvement of facility operation. As a research method, I grasp the stakeholders, organize the relationship model in time series, visualize it by element analysis of the operations, and examine the solution.
In the future, as a verification of business improvement, (4) a fact-finding questionnaire (scheduled for September to November) will be conducted, and (5) a new operation evaluation method will be developed as a verification of improvement. In addition, in this discussion, the question material in (4) will be obtained.
In Minamata City, Kumamoto Prefecture, in January 2008, a "round table meeting" with the theme of "zero waste" was established. Since then, this “round table conference” has been expanding for the theme of “place for collaborative participation”, increasing its number, and part of it has disappeared, and has been active for 12 years. In this report, by reviewing the 12-year history of the “Zero Waste Roundtable” in Minamata City, we will discuss how the “roundtable meeting” in Minamata City was operated and what kind of activities it has conducted. The purpose is to organize and consider using "collaboration" as a keyword, and to form the basis for future research and study.
A questionaire survey on public awareness of source separation was conducted in the city of beijing, the capital of china.respondents of the survey were collected by sns,108 samples were collected.
As a result,the normative consciousness is an important factor.however,it is considered necessary to conduct a survey for a wider range of attributes,since the bias of the sample due to the survey method is assumed.
This study focuses on the "life story" of people who work as professional organizers to analyze the relationship between the living environment in their childhood and family history, life experience after infancy, and the background and motivation for tidying up. How it affected lifestyle habits and consumption behavior after tidying up is also discussed.
In this study, I focused on household food waste which is produced during preparation and investigated the details and reasons. I conducted a questionnaire survey on consumers who are mainly responsible for cooking at home, in which I showed seventeen edible parts of ten kinds of popular vegetables, and asked whether they remove each part and what attitude they have toward it. The results suggest that 1) more then 50 percent of the total participants remove parts around carrot petioles, carrot skins, parts around potato skins, outer layers of cabbages, and daikon radish skins, 2) regardless of the kinds of vegetables or parts, many participants remove edible parts considering convenience in preparation: they agree with such ideas as “I remove it to eliminate inedible parts completely” or “I remove it to facilitate easy preparation and cooking,” and 3) participants have different negative attitudes such as “bad taste,” “dirty,” or “afraid of agrichemicals” toward different parts.
According to the effectuation of the Minamata Convention on mercury in 2017, environmentally safe disposal of unused mercury is requested. Mercury immobilization facilities and final disposal landfill sites are probably regarded NIMBY and it will be greatly difficult to build them for mercury management in terms of public acceptance. If Japanese citizens have a strongly negative perception to mercury, it makes mercury management, in particular mercury final disposal, more and more difficult. In this context, this study quantitatively measured perceptive aversion to mercury employing pairwise comparison method with Thurstone’s model and Scheffe’s model. Thurstone’s model is designed based on “discriminal process” invoked on a psychological continuum. Probability distribution of the discriminal process is described by normal Gaussian distribution. Scheffe’s model is designed mathematically based on a statistical model of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Both models suggested that perceptive aversion to mercury was the second largest. A comparison of aversions estimated by both models showed good agreement. Large aversion to mercury might suggest large difficulty to form public acceptance of building any facilities for mercury treatment and final disposal.
In this paper, we examined the issue of strengthening the coping capacity of municipal solid waste management in sub-Saharan Africa by comparing it with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). As a result, the socio-demographic characteristics index (SDI, 2017) shows a strong positive correlation with “per capita national income (GNI, 2018)” and “human development index (HDI, 2018)”, and also it has a positive correlation with “Service coverage rate” and “Data availability”.
Up to now, international cooperation in the field of solid waste management has focused on waste collection and proper disposal in urban area, because of the need for sanitary measures. For example, Yoshida (2020) found that 71 (82%) projects on "environmental management through urban waste management" out of 87 projects were implemented by JICA in the field of waste management and resource recycling. On the other hand, in recent years, the issue marine plastic debris, which has received a great deal of attention, has made international cooperation on waste to be expanded to waste management in rural area, design for recycling, environmentally sound recycling of plastics, and others. This paper shows the importance of waste management in the context of marine plastic debris issue, and the possible area of cooperation from Japan to developing countries in the field of waste management, in order to reduce leakage of plastic waste to the ocean.
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the mandatory deposit-refund system and to consider a case study of in-store collection of PET using RVM in Japan and China from a historical institutional perspective. The mandatory deposit-refund system has been in place from the 1970s to the present, mainly in Europe and North America. The introduction of the system is gradually spreading. This is due to the fact that the European Commission and European Parliament, where environmental interests are strongly represented, and institutionally embedded NGOs have used their influence. Social learning of the experiences of Scandinavian countries is also progressing. In Japan, there was a debate in the 1990s, but the introduction of the system was rejected due to the strong centralization of power and the strength of producers. Since then, there has been virtually no political process for the introduction of the system. Against this backdrop, in recent years, both Japan and China have begun to introduce store collections with RVM. In Japan, there are high burdens on retailers and non-smooth collaboration of store collection with municipal collection, while in China, high burdens on RVM manufacturers, dependence on subsidies and competition with scavengers are a challenge.
This research analyzes the waste management inspection conducted by the Hangzhou Municipal Government to explain the current state of waste management in Hangzhou, China. The Hangzhou Municipal Government published a "Report on the Status of Waste Management Work in Hangzhou City" regarding the waste management status of residents of each district in Hangzhou City. Using the data from January to October 2019 of the report, this research analyzes the accuracy rates of Waste management inspection and the scores of Waste management. The results indicate , first , that China, like Japan, conducts Waste management through its individual municipalities. Therefore, the waste management behavior of each district is greatly affected by its management system and management capacity. Secondly, the administrative agencies in China are managed in the order of City → District → Street Office → Community. The community, the smallest management institution, conducts the waste management of its residents. From the analysis, it is clear that the area where a community is located is also easier for the government to manage, and, therefore, the performance of waste management is higher.