The Vibrio splendidus clade is the biggest in Vibrionales composed of 11 described species (25). Diversification of these species may have occurred 260 million years ago. The main driving forces of speciation in this clade have never been studied. Population biological parameters (population base recombination rate (ρ), population base mutation rate (θ), and index of association (Ia)) were determined among 16 strains of 9 defined species in the Splendidus cluster. A comparison of individual gene phylogeny indicated significant incongruence in tree topology, which suggests the occurrence of recombination between species. Homologous recombination between species was detected at four loci. However, the mutation rate θ was higher than the recombination rate ρ, suggesting that mutation is the main driving force in the diversification of V. splendidus-related species.
The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method for the specific detection of respiring Escherichia coli (an indicator of fecal contamination) in potable water. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe was used to detect E. coli cells and bacterial respiratory activity was estimated using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC). Fluorescent signals from hybridized cells were increased by optimized tyramide signal amplification (TSA). Respiring E. coli in potable ground water with low rRNA content were enumerated within 8 hours using signal-amplified in situ hybridization following formazan reduction (TSA-CTC-FISH), whereas these starved E. coli cells could not be detected by conventional FISH (FISH without signal amplification) which generated weak fluorescence. TSA-CTC-FISH can be used for simultaneous identification in situ based on phylogenetic information and the activity of individual bacterial cells in potable water. This method would be useful in the rapid monitoring of harmful or fecal indicator bacteria in potable water.
The genus Leptospirillum is known to dominate acid mine drainage and bioleaching systems. In this paper, we describe the isolation of iron-oxidizing bacteria closely related to Leptospirillum ferrooxidans from an acidic volcanic ash deposit on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. We further show the nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) for one (strain C2-1) of the isolates. The deposit harbored 1.2×108 total direct count (g dry weight)-1 and 7.1×105 (most-probable-number, MPN) (g dry weight)-1 of iron-oxidizer. A ferrous iron-limited, aerobic chemostat culture using Leptospirillum HH medium (pH 1.8) was performed to select and isolate the Leptospirillum group. Nine isolates were regarded as pure cultures based on uniform colony morphology on Fe2+-containing silica gel plates and absence of growth on 100-fold diluted nutrient broth plates. Six strains examined further shared 99.9-100% identity in 16S rRNA gene sequence with each other. Homology-based searches showed that all of the strains belonged to the Leptospirillum ferrooxidans clade. Strain C2-1 grown in ammonium sulfate-free Leptospirillum HH medium (pH 1.8) showed an initial rate of acetylene reduction of 58 μmol h-1 (g cell carbon)-1.
We developed a method for the separate and simultaneous analysis of the community structure of heterotrophic nanopkankton (HNP) and autotrophic nanoplankton (ANP). This method consists of three steps. First, nanoplankton cells were concentrated using a cross-flow filtration system because cell densities in natural seawater are usually too low for genetic studies. Second, HNP and ANP were separated by flow cytometric sorting ("flow sorting") on the basis of the presence or absence of chlorophyll. Finally, the community structure was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis targeting 18S rRNA gene. The newly developed method was applied to the coastal surface water of Aburatsubo Inlet, Japan, in July 2008. The separation of nanoplankton into HNP and ANP was validated by phylogenetic analysis, and the trophic mode of uncultured nanoplankton was confirmed (e.g. Marine Alveolata group II [MALV II] and Marine Stramenopile clade-2 [MAST-2]). This new method involving cell concentration, flow sorting and phylogenetic analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating the population dynamics and ecology of marine protozoa.
Four hundred and fifty nine isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from the leaves and roots of potato plants. Of these, 20 leaf isolates and 28 root isolates induced violacein production in two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-reporter strains—Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and VIR24. VIR24 is a new reporter strain for long N-acyl-chain-homoserine lactones, which can not be detected by CV026. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that the isolates produced multiple AHL molecules. We compared the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates with sequences from a known database, and examined phylogenetic relationships. The AHL-producing isolates generally separated into three groups. Group I was mostly composed of leaf isolates, and group III, root isolates. Group II comprised both leaf and root isolates. There was a correlation between the phylogenetic cluster and the AHL molecules produced and some phenotypic characteristics. Our study confirmed that AHL-producing fluorescent pseudomonads could be distinguished in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of potato plants.
Among the fundamental questions in marine microbial ecology are which taxa or phylogenetic groups account for total bacterial productivity and what is the relative contribution of each. We combined bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (BIC-FISH) to examine phylotype-specific contributions to total bacterial productivity in eutrophic seawater. We also examined year-round changes in phylotype-specific contributions and explored the factors controlling these changes. Monitoring by BIC-FISH throughout the year revealed the importance of the Roseobacter/Rhodobacter group as a constantly proliferating basic population (27% of all BrdU-positive cells), although their contribution was not significantly correlated with water temperature or with chlorophyll a or organic matter concentration. The Bacteroidetes were another important group, as they greatly increased in abundance after the end of phytoplankton blooms. Two other phylotypes tested, the SAR86 and Vibrio groups, changed their contributions to bacterial productivity with changes in water temperature. To our knowledge, this study was the first to estimate the yearly contribution of major subgroups of marine bacteria to total bacterial productivity in a seawater environment.
Aliivibrio fischeri NCIMB1281T (basonym, Vibrio fischeri) spontaneously started broad-host range vector particle (AfVP) production by budding from the logarithmic phase, and stabilised at around 7.0×1010-7.4×1011 particles mL-1 without any accompanying change in the host population. AfVPs had a spherical shape and varied in diameter from 18.1 to 159.2 nm [median±SD, 58.4±11.9 nm, n=528], with 95.1% between 30.2 and 84.6 nm in diameter exhibiting a normal distribution. Their buoyant density and DNA content ranged from 1.3607 to 1.3980 g cm-3, and 17.3 to 95.3 kbp, respectively. Regardless of UV treatment, AfVPs enhanced the efficiency of plating 116-136% at a multiplicity of infection of ca. 140 in Escherichia coli AB1157. Generalised transduction was observed with a frequency of between 10-4 and 10-6 cells per AfVP without UV treatment. Upon infection, the particle membrane remained outside the recipient cell, and a string-like structure coated with a fibrous proteinaceous-like material was present. The growth of the E. coli transductant (AfV-E-trans) reached a maximum of ca. 415% that of the parental E. coli recipient. AfV-E-trans acquired the ability to produce budding particles.
A dechlorinating microbial enrichment culture designated TUT2264 was cultured with tetrachloroethene and then characterized for tetrachloroethene-dechlorination by culture-dependent and -independent methods. The fourth-transferred TUT2264 culture completely dechlorinated tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene, and accumulated more trans-1,2-dichloroethene than cis-1,2-dichloroethene. A real-time PCR analysis revealed that "Dehalococcoides" cells made up only 0.3% of the total. Eight distinct reductive-dehalogenase-homologous genes (rdh) were detected with degenerate primers. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 5 of the 8 RdhAs to be very similar to RdhAs reported previously but not to share 100% identity. Transcriptional levels were quantified as the number of transcripts per rdhA by combining the reverse transcription real-time PCR and exogenous internal reference mRNA methods. TUT2264 responded to all the chloroethenes tested. rdhA4 was transcribed with all chloroethenes except vinyl chloride, whereas rdhA8 was only transcribed on tetrachloroethene. Furthermore, multiple rdhAs were induced to express by a single chloroethene as a growth-supporting or non-supporting substrate. These results suggested that Rdhs are multi-functional and rdhAs are a powerful tool to evaluate the potential of contaminated sites and isolates to dechlorinate chloroethenes.
N-Octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) is an acyl-homoserine-lactone signal utilized in the quorum-sensing (QS) systems of Burkholderia cenocepacia and other bacterial species. Although also produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its role in this species has not been elucidated. Here, we report that C8-HSL modulated antibiotic resistance and pyocyanin production in a P. aeruginosa efflux pump-deficient mutant. The rhl/las quorum-sensing system and qscR gene were both shown to be nonessential in the C8-HSL-induced changes in ofloxacin resistance, suggesting that P. aeruginosa possesses a distinct pathway to respond to C8-HSL.
The dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins was examined in an enrichment culture (KFL culture) that contained two phylotypes of Dehalobacter, FTH1 and FTH2. The KFL culture dechlorinated 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,4-trichorobiphenyl (2,3,4-TriCB), and 1,2,3-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3-TriCDD). Quantitative real-time PCR targeting FTH1 and FTH2 revealed significant increases with the addition of PCBs and 1,2,3-TriCDD, suggesting halorespiring growth of the Dehalobacter species in the KFL culture. This study demonstrated the reductive dechlorination of PCBs and 1,2,3-TriCDD by Dehalobacter species in a sediment-free culture and a novel dechlorination pathway, the conversion of 2,3,4-TriCB to 4-monochlorobiphenyl via 3,4-dichlorobiphenyl.