Microorganisms develop into communities in nearly every environmental niche, which is typically replete with micrometer-scale gaps and features. In each of these habitats, microorganisms adapt to and are affected by their physical environment. Conventional culture methods use glass bottom dishes or millimeter-scale flow cells, which poorly mimic the complexity of natural micrometer-scale environments; therefore, the limitations associated with the creation of microbe-scale environments with granularity hinder the ability to examine their ecological behavior. Microfluidics is a tool that is increasingly being used to study microorganisms because it enables the manipulation of micrometer-scale flows while simultaneously facilitating real-time and live-cell imaging. In this review, we discuss several insights into the behavior of bacteria and fungi that were gained through the adoption of microfluidics to control complex micrometer-scale environments. We also discuss the potential of the increased adoption of this tool.