The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problems caused by the removal of the academic ability deviation score by Saitama Prefectural Board of Education in 1992 as well as to clarify the removal’s effect on teachers through the analysis of teachers’ testimony.
The data for this study were obtained from a survey conducted from January-April of 2009. The sample of the questionnaires that were given to junior high school teachers consisted of 141 mail surveys and 8 case studies by interview surveys.
The compiled data summary is as follows：
First, 70% of the teachers’ description indicated a critical opinion of the removal of the academic ability deviation score. The teachers were confused.
Second, 50% of the teachers’ description indicated that they implemented new career guidance due to the removal of the score. The remaining 50% indicated that they administered a school test and a standard test of the city (or area).
Third, Effect on teachers as a whole : The entrance examination guidance that the teachers were originally providing was shifted over to cram schools. As a result of this, students’ and parents’ reliance and confidence in the teachers has declined.
Effect on teachers individually : The teachers saw qualitative transformation in their practice when it was subjective, critical reflection to its own practice.
In conclusion, the teachers had a critical view of the removal of the academic ability deviation score. They became confused. As a result, it was revealed that the teachers experienced a variety of effects (collectively and individually) as a result for the removal of the score.
In the future, it will be necessary to complete a comprehensive analysis by conducting additional teacher interviews.
In this study, I develop and examine the effect of a teacher training program that aims to understand the cultural background of international schoolchildren who are non-native Japanese speakers. The program also trains teachers to teach other school subjects using the Japanese language.
The objectives of this program are as follows. First, to develop teacher’s skills in applying CALP（Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency）in the classroom that is necessary for learning each subject in school. Second, to improve international schoolchildren’s academic performance. Third, encouraging the instruction of international schoolchildren not only by individual teachers but also through the whole school environment.
In order to develop the program I performed classroom trials and made observations of in-school training in a number of sample schools.
The program is composed of lectures and practices. The lectures aim to assist the teachers in acquiring the following skills. First, becoming aware of on which point they should pay attention when they teach subjects to international schoolchildren. Second, by discerning the difference between BICS（Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills）and CALP, and recognizing the different processes of language acquisition. Third, to understand ways of instruction that improve schoolchildren’s CALP through teaching school subjects. And for practice, I provided exercises like making teaching plans and performing the experimental lessons.
By examining this program, I confirmed the effects that I expected when I designed the program. At the same time, I determined that this program provided the same effects with various schools and cultural backgrounds of international schoolchildren. Therefore, it can be concluded that this program is effective in developing teacher’s skills for the instruction of international schoolchildren.
This paper, focusing on the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) in the 1960s, reveals that educators of exceptional children in the U.S. established their own professional standards in search for professional autonomy. This shows that in the U.S. the establishment of the professional standards in special education went through a different process from that in regular education.
In examining the development process of the Professional Standards for Personnel in the Education of Exceptional Children：Professional Standards Project Report (PS-1966), this study discusses three research questions. 1) How did the situation of special education in the 1960s affect the development of the PS-1966? 2) On what was the PS-1966 based? 3) How did the CEC establish their professional autonomy?
First, in the 1960s, the CEC had the awareness that if professional standards for educators of exceptional children were adapted to those for all teachers, the professional autonomy of the former would not have been developed. In addition, from the point of view of accreditation, guaranteeing the quality of preparation for special education teachers was in a difficult situation. Dealing with these issues prompted the CEC to develop their professional standards. Second, the PS-1966 was developed on the basis of “competencies”, which were supposed to be formed from knowledge, and on the concept that professionals were responsible for their own professional growth. Third, the CEC established its professional autonomy by developing their professional standards for educators on its own, which meant that professionals were to set their high standards, discipline themselves, and criticize itself.
In conclusion, it is significant to recognize the following. First, the PS-1966 had a structure that allowed the professional community, including students, teachers, administrators, supervisors, teacher educators, and researchers, to ensure the growth of educators of exceptional children. Next, the CEC showed that it was an autonomous organization continuing to seek the professional improvement of educators of exceptional children. Finally, the establishment of professional standards in special education in the 1960s is early in terms of the education history.
This research examined the kinds of challenges and difficulties that led teachers to utilize aspects of the private educational research movement in voluntary training, based on the discourse found in Hito magazine.
The challenges as described in Hito magazine were two fold. First, the teachers acknowledged their limited ability to prepare lessons. This limitation led teachers to become involved in the movement to obtain data on the results of the educational movement’s experimental research. The goal of the movement was to provide specific educational techniques which would permit teachers better preparation for their class lessons. Second, while the teachers learned and practiced the skills as found in the private educational movement, they were aware of the necessity of individualizing the information to fit each child, not applying blanket theories. In this voluntary training, teachers considered it as ideal not to imitate the knowledge or the skills given by the government agencies and not just follow the outlined directions.
By using Hito magazine we have been able to study the relationship between the private educational research movement and voluntary teacher training which has not been studied before.
The purpose of this paper is to suggest some ways for improving the Practical Teaching Experience (PTE) at schools in Japan by sharing insights garnered from examining the four-year Initial Teacher Education (ITE) program in the Professional Development School (PDS) at Illinois State University (ISU) in the United States.
For this study, ISU classes and lectures, PTEs, and the in-the-field interaction between an ISU supervisor of the Middle Education Course and his students were observed for two weeks each in two visits. Moreover, a structured group interview with the eighteen trainees about their PTEs was conducted.
The following are the features of PTE at PDS in ISU:
(1) PTE is implemented throughout the year in Year 4 at one specific placement school under the supervision of one specific university tutor and cooperating teacher at the school.
(2) Trainee students go back and forth between the university and their placement schools during their PTE period. Not only the cooperating teacher but also the university tutor provides time-consuming guidance, including reflective activities, by discussing their lessons in the post-lesson observation sessions.
(3) Trainee students are assessed by ITE standards officially set by ISU.
Being based on the aforementioned three points and research results, the following suggestions for improving PTE in Japan can be offered:
1. Introduce a whole year PTE program, with official teaching standards for qualified teacher status, which enables trainee students to study theoretical features at a university even during the PTE period. In addition, ensure that university tutors have sufficient time to supervise their trainee students during the PTE period.
2. Place the initial focus of the ITE on practice, while providing trainee students with ways to understand theory through practice. Specifically in order to bridge the gap between theory and practice, trainee students need to have chances to learn the relation between theory and practice by deducing theoretical knowledge from practical knowledge.