This research is a case study of teacher-image from the standpoint of discourse analysis, which relies on methodological-relativism. The object of analysis is certain discourses of "DEMOSHIKA-KYOSHI" which were mainly appeared in the mass media in the forms of articles of newspapers, reports, contributions and so on.
The image of "DEMOSHIKA-KYOSHI" was initially called into question by Michio Nagai (1923-2000) who was known as a Minister of Education, Science and Culture from 1974 to 1976. He was an associate professor of education at Kyoto University at that time. Nagai argued the image of "DEMOSHIKA" in his essay for "Chuo Koron" in May, 1957.
What he implied by the image was that the students belonging to faculty of education lacked academic ability and volition. This essay produced many disputes. For example, even though one reviewer agreed to Nagai, he doubted if the image of "DEMOSHIKA" was caused only by a student's personal problem. Furthermore, some pedagogists were against Nagai by saying that such an image was not always problematic. According to this view, the most important thing for being a teacher was having a good character, students who lacked academic ability and volition were thus expected to turn into good teachers as far as they were good in character.
It was significant perspectives which were different from Nagai's essay were shown. Many people thought that "DEMOSHIKA" was the 'real' teacher's problem rather than would-be teacher's, unlike what Nagai initially pointed out. When the discourse of "DEMOSHIKA-KYOSHI" was spreaded and became popular, it came to be related to a certain criticism of actual teachers rather than that of students who would become teachers in the future. That is to say, the image of "DEMOSHIKA" turned into the resource of discourse to criticize teachers.
In short, the image of "DEMOSHIKA-KYOSHI", which has functioned as such a resource of discourse, brought the argument which were different from what Nagai initially pointed out.
The purpose of this article is to examine how an elementary school teacher creates collaborative inquiry in his social studies lesson. This study is based on a field research conducted in a fourth grade class to investigate how the teacher forms participation and collaborative learning by students. In this study, the concept of “conversational floor” produced by Shultz, J., Florio, S. and Erickson, F. A was used to describe the teacher's strategies. Conversational floor means the rights and duties between speakers and listeners mediated by a topic.
In this class, students introduce the topics into discussion by themselves and form the conversational floors. The floors are constructed fluid and multilayered. Mr. Fukuyama, the teacher in this class, constantly coordinates and repairs the interpersonal relationships among students.
There are three kinds of strategies of organizing conversational floors. First, he mediates and forms the relationships among students as the speaker and/or the listener. They express their understandings about topics each other. Second, he prepares various ways of participation by organizing multilayered conversational floors and making networks among students. Third, he writes down the students' utterances on the blackboard and shows their configuration so that the students rethink the discussion and learn how to inquire collaborately. This strategy was used with the first and second strategies so that students would be able to exchange and reflect a variety of perspectives.
The teacher designs the students' various experiences through organizing the conversational relationships as well as helps them to understand and construct their own knowledge.
This paper provides information on the cleation of school social work in Japan that is concerned in the teaching training. Their problem is same level at the following that argues about the relation between the social work skills and the school teaching skills, and that compare some of the purposes and principales of education and child welfare. Today, it is't made clear yet.
It learns the case from present situation of actual social practices and history in united states of America. And so, Investigation study about established social work for child and youth care system , I was able to get a suggest with contexts for empowerment and advocacy were including liaison between community and school based services. The empowerment and advocacy are creating a new paradigm as social work and child aid services.
The schooling teacher have to obtain the functions of interviewing and counselling skills, for relationships interpersonal relation and individual-family functioning, community development and community resources as well as social worker. They pointed out that most of the well-being recreation for the children in community was originated by school social worker.
Many research reports say that most students decided to be a teacher while they were elementary or secondary students. In particular, the students were motivated to be a teacher when they met reliable teachers. But it is not clear that what types of teachers are reliable to them.
According to my inquiry on students who are in 1st year of teacher training course of Japan Women's College of Physical Education, more than 80% students had a reliable teacher in their elementary or secondary school days.
These teachers were mostly their home-room teachers in elementary school. They were mostly teachers who were in charge of extra-curricular activities in secondery school.
Students learned basic social rules from these teachers. They were also appreciated and encouraged by these teachers, and gained self-confidence.
From my point of view, the reason why home-room teachers or extra-curricular activities' teachers are chosen as reliable teachers is that more free communication related to their daily lives between pupils and teachers are more likely to occur in the home-room or extra-curricular activities than in regular classes guided by curriculum.
It seems to me that it is important to introduce more communication between pupils and teachers to meet pupil's needs in regular classes, just like in home rooms and extra-curricular activities.
The Japanese government passed the basic law for a gender-equal society in 1999. It is important that schools provide education on gender issues for children to realize a gender-equal society. This article is based on a series of lessons in which both the content and the teaching method were gender sensitive. After the lessons were finished, assessment was made of the children's learning process about gender. The course was planned by a home economics teacher at an elementary school and an academic at a university who researches gender issues in education.
The home economics teacher gave her 6th grade classes 21 lessons from September 1999 to March 2000. All the lessons were recorded by video camera and analyzed by the home economics teacher and the academic.
The course was composed of three parts. The purpose of the first part was to make the children aware of gender issues around them. In the second part, the children investigated and found gender issues by themselves. In the last part, the children expressed how they felt about gender issues. The children met and communicated with people who had particular views and experiences regarding gender.
According to analysis of the lessons, children did come to recognize the problem of gender. However, some children could not consider gender problems linking with their own life. The lessons were not effective in teaching the children what they should do by themselves to create a gender-equal society. It is important that teachers explain how gender has been socially, culturally and historically constructed and teach children how society and consciousness have changed regarding gender issues.
The purpose of this article is to point out the characteristic of "Introduction to Teaching Profession" in Aichi Prefectural University (APU) with relation to the several textbooks on sale. The object of this study is the intensive course from September 1st till September 8th for freshmen in evening session who can obtain Teaching Certificate in lower secondary school and higher school.
The textbooks sold in the market intend to provide students with opportunity to choose teacher training course or not. They put emphasis on the duties of teachers and educational practice in relation to the state of schools and teachers. Compared with these books, the intensive course in APU has the same aim but has little weight in the educational practice and has much weight in the guidance to obtain the Teaching Certificate. According to reports by the students in this course, they begin to think about being teachers by attending the course. The task ahead of us is to develop the course based on the fruits of pedagogy and so on.
To solve educational problems in schools such as many students who don't attend school regularly or leave school, it is important to create a system in which teachers make collaborative teams so that organizational practice would be realized effectively. The aim of these teams would be to enable students to achieve ideal results and to lead them to a higher level of autonomous activities. The purpose of this study is to explore how to create such a system in terms of theory and practice.
Questionnaires for teachers and students in Tokyo metropolitan high schools and some administrators ware used and interviews with experienced teachers were conducted in this study. The surveys and interviews were then analysed to identity how to form an ideal student group.