In Germany, since the Weimar period, the people who work in both educational and social institutions, such as day nursery, kindergarten, home and youth center, are called social pedagogue(Sozialpädagoge). Compared with ordinary teachers, the level of their qualification and the system of their training have not yet fully developed. These days, however, their number is consistently increasing and accordingly their estimation is steadily rising. The purpose of this study is to show the development and the present state of the social pedagogue's qualification and training.
In the first chapter, I explain the origin, the legal ground, the category and the training institution of the social pedagogue. They are founded on “the child and youth welfare law” and trained mainly in 1) specialist training college for educators at elementary level, 2) college at university level for social pedagogues and social workers, 3)educational department of university.
In the second chapter, I give a historical survey of the develpment of the training system of social pedagogue and social worker in college at university level.
In the third chapter I consider the present curriculum of social pedagogue training in college at university level and educatinal department of university.
Finally, I emphasize that in Germany the educational science has played the central role in the curriculum, which makes significant point of difference particularly between the social pedagogue's training systems in Germany and in Japan.
After 18 years, the Labour party has returned to a ruling position as a result of the British general election of 1 May 1997. The highest priority in the Labour party's programme was given to education reform. There were twelve policies for education in its manifesto. One of them, entitled “Teachers: Pressure and Support”, called for the establishment of a General Teaching Council (GTC) with authority over the teaching profession. After the election, preparation for this started, in order to establish it by the year 2000. The relevant Teaching and Higher Education Bill became law in July 1998.
The history of attempts to establish a GTC in England goes back to in 1860, but serious pressure for it developed in the 1980s and 90s. In Scotland, on the other hand, a GTC has been established since 1966. Its main roles are to advise the government, to register teachers and to control teachers' quality. The Scottish GTC is the chief model for a GTC establishment in England.
All teachers in state schools will have to register with the GTC. It will be financed by teachers' annual fees. The GTC is likely to be composed of 64 members, including elected teacher members, appointed members from the main teacher unions and other groups concerned with education, and members appointed by the ministry of education.
The present government's watchwords, “pressure and support”, clearly underlie the policy of establishing the GTC. Its main functions are to speak for teachers and to enhance their quality, and also to bar incompetent teachers from the profession. The GTC will be independent, and aim to enhance the professional autonomy of teachers. Thus the establishment of a GTC can be understood as leading in a new educational direction in England.
This paper is based on the participant observation and inteviews with an elementary school teacher and tries to clarify the contents of his beliefs in the 1997-98 academic year. According to research materials, the characteristics of the teacher are as follows;
1. He is a frank and open-minded practitioner with a strong ethics of teaching profession.
2. He always self-reflects his own teaching practice and its effectiveness from the viewpoint of pupil's products of learning.
3. He has an acceptable view of his practices. and also has a positive view of the teaching profession.
First, this paper showed the base of his teaching behavior. This base is consisted in teacher's belief systems, as “A sense of profession.” They are harmoniously composed of five beliefs, such as a feeling of mission, inquiry, acceptance, efficiency, and competence. Those are arrauged in organic way. They and are based on child-centered mind.
Secondly, this paper showed the significance of professional development about clarification of the contents of teacher's beliefs through this case study. It is the base of a full beliefs with no resolution of proceduers and skills that he can promote pupil's products of learning. Because it is nesessary for us to think about not only the procedures and skills in educational practice but also the contents of teacher's beliefs in order to promote professional development.
In addition, this paper has some limitations which do not investigate the process and factors of making up his beliefs.
The purpose of this study is to examine the formation and materialization process of the principle of “the Establishment of Teaching Profession” in the Educational Personnel Certification Law(1949). The principle of “the Establishment of Teaching Profession” is the key concept of the Educational Personnel Certification Law and the point of dispute of educational reform in post-war period in Japan.
This study analyzes the Ministry of Education Action in teacher education reform which was the responsibility of new teacher education system and establishment of the Educational Personnel Certification Law.
The main findings were as follows:
1. Under the leadership and support of CIE, Ministry of Education started the study of teacher education curriculum and certification in the U.S.A., especially the investigation of teachers' college model.
2. The ideal of this model was the inductive method and the principle was “Observation-Participation- Practice Teaching-Reforming the Theory”.
3. The materialization of the principle of “the Establishment of Teaching Profession” required the reform of teaching quality in new college.
We report the developmental research that the incumbent graduate students of Shiga University investigated the thematic approach in England, developed the subject-matter and practiced it. This paper is consisted of three parts : the progress of in-service training in graduate school ; the outline and the significance of the thematic approach practiced by Tanaka in his classroom ; examinating the possibility of in-service training.
First, we present the progress of the developmental research performed in graduate school. In 1994, it was started in the seminar of Shiga University by professor Inagaki.
We used the Focus Pack carried in Junior Education, researched the thematic approach in England and U.S.A. and developed the subject-matter. Professor Inagaki continued this research with graduate students. In 1998, we organized the society for the study of the thematic approach. We have compared the integrated learning of Japan with the thematic approach of England and developed the subject-matter in Japan.
Second, we report the thematic approach practiced by Tanaka who is one of our members. He adopted “WATER” from a lot of Focus Packs. In 1998, he practiced “The study of WATER” with the forth grade children at Seta-higash primary school in Otsu-City. First, he presents the outline of the Focus Pack “WATER”. Second, he reports and examines his practice. Third, he reflects on his hishimselctice and himself. He discourses that it is important to reexamine teaching and learning and be empaciated from a fixed frame of education.
Finally, we considered some points about the significance of the practical and developmental research in in-service training. First, this research has a possibility that reorganizes a school-based curriculum study. Second, we think that teachers cultivate the capacity to reflect and develop a new type teaching through this research. Third, we will grow up into a leader of the curriculum development that is an important issue today.
In the faculty of school education (Elementary school Teacher Education Program) at Hyogo University of Teacher Education (HUTE), the teaching observation and participation (Practice Teaching Ⅱ) for sophomore, as pre-training of student teaching in elementary school for four weeks (Practice Teaching Ⅲ), in youth service activities of social education in cooperation with social education facilities has been established since the year of Heisei 2(1990). The purpose of this study is to analyze and consider the following points about what we are able to expect as learning effect by the object understanding ability about children if student teachers at HUTE have acquired the ability by guidance experiences in Practice Teaching Ⅱ, through their field notes and the questionnaires conducted on them of the faculty of school education at HUTE, in order to pursue the possibility that the practice teaching curriculum contributes greatly to individualized preservice teacher education.
(1)the image changes of the teaching profession and children
(2)the degree of confidence in abilities and competences as a teacher
(3)the educational meaning of this teaching observation and participation
(4)the degree of desire to becoming a teacher and the degree of fitness for a teacher
(5)the degree of desire to guidance for children in youth service of social education
As a result of this study, we clarified the following three points. The first, guidance experiences in Practice Teaching Ⅱ facilitate the formation and development of great and individual images of the teaching profession and children. The second, many student teachers show an active interest in social education by the experiences, and the experiences contribute to education and development of new type teacher who desires to guidance for children in youth service of social education. The third, Practice Teaching Ⅱ serves student teachers for the formation of fundamental abilities and competences as a teacher.
During the 1997 fall semester, the teacher education course at of Meiji University experimentally offered a comprehensive subject entitled ”Views on Education; to sharpen up the sensitivity for the human rights”, targeted mainly at the first year students who had studied” Principles of Education” in the spring semester. This series of lecture was done collaboratively by all members of the course staff and intended to prepare common basics for the students who take teacher education course. In this paper, I report the process of discussion which resulted to try this comprehensive subject collaboratively, and the position of this in the teacher education curriculum structure as a whole, and then, summarize each lecture and do some evaluation of this experiment. Through the experience of this comprehensive subject, I had a critical opinion on the revised Teacher Training Law and Regulation, as it depress the autonomous curriculum reform of individual university.