In order to research how metaphors of “subject matters” were changed in the course of a new student teaching “educational practice research” in Shiga University, we gave metaphor-making tasks to the second graduate students who were trained in teaching simulation and microteaching. We asked them to make a metaphor on a topic, “subject matters” before and after student teaching. They made many kinds of metaphors: playing, journey, cooking, information and so on. Through those metaphors we can comprehend students' concept about functions of subject matters, images of teacher and learning. Their concepts about functions of subject matters were making a process of learning and supporting children's learning. Many kinds of metaphors about learning were made by students, but almost of them were similar image reflected by learning by transmission. These results suggested that students' images were made by their learning experiences in childhood, and in order to change their images we have to give them meaningful case of teaching and learning.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the current status of the four Japan's first graduate schools in distance learning, established in April, 1999, in terms of expansion and diversification of the in-service training for teaching profession. This study analyzes the four graduate schools in distance learning in terms of the master's program, the curriculum, the study-teaching methods, the recruitment system, and the applicants and enrolled students. The following points are found:
(ⅰ) The Japan's first graduate schools in distance learning, Nihon, Bukkyo, Meisei and Seitoku are all private universities. The Master's programs in each graduate school are those connected to career development in either the teaching profession such as kindergarten, elementary-school, and secondary-school teachers, or the counselling profession like school-counsellors, or the administrative profession in the recurrent education and the social welfare. However, Nihon University has set up the master's program of social and cultural studies. The program is independent of any other undergraduate academic programs.
(ⅱ) The candidates were ranging from 27 to 4.5 times as many as the fixed number of enrolment from all parts of Japan. The averabe age of those enrolled was 42.6 years old, 83 years old (superintendent of educational affairs) at the oldest, and 22 years old at the youngest. A large proportion of the candidates were teachers-in-service and more than 60% of the enrolled students were teachers-in-service. Therefor, the demand for graduate schools in distance learning has been large extent and this should be noted.
(ⅲ) The current development and utilization of communication media would have made it easier for those-in-service in the teaching profession to learn independently and autonomously at one's own pace anytime, anywhere. In this sense, the graduate schools in distance learning would give those teachers-in-service a great promise of expansion and diversification of their career development program in the near future.
(ⅳ) The in-service training for teaching profession in graduate schools in distance learning in particular should mainly aim at refreshing oneself through learning experiences in the fields of his/her own keen interest as a student, not as a teacher. It may be that independent graduate school in distance learning like Nihon University would provide such self-refreshing experiences in the course of carrier development.
When we try to analyze the Training System for Secondary School Teachers in Prewar Japan generally, the secondary school teacher was trained by various route while Higher Normal School etc. had main role. It is appropriate to classify the type of the training system into three categories from broad perspective. First of all, making the training in the Higher Normal School and Women's Higher Normal School are a regular route. Besides the training in Special Institute for the Training of Teachers will belong to this type. Next, the 2nd route is the Official National Examination System that the Ministry of Education authorizes scholastic ability and behavior etc. The successful candidate are awarded teacher licenses. Last, the 3rd route is to graduate from colleges and pass the Licensure of Teachers from Colleges to school graduates without examination. Teachers with some experiences are also awarded licenses without examination.
This article studies the test problem of the Official National Examination System for teaching History in Prewar Japan. I make clear the disposition of the teacher which the Official National Examination System tried to train in prewar days. The outline of career of the Official National Examination System for teaching History is described. Test member of a committee is analyzed because they had a big influence on the test problem. Finally, trend of the testing are analyzed in terms of the member of committee and the social context.
Jingo Shimizu (1884-1960) has been involving in practical study for reform of educational method as a teacher of Elementary School attached to Nara Women's Higher Normal School from 1911 to 1945. The purpose of this article is to examine his educational idea in order to argue about his method and attitude of study for his educational practice. He has always discussed his educational practice as not a theoretician but a practical man. He learned many theories of New Education and improved his skills of educational practice. Especially he found the expectation of his growth as a teacher in practice of the theory of learning method, “Gakusyuu-hou” by Takeji Knoshita. Characteristics of his method for studies are the follows:
1. The importance of records of educational facts
2. The importance of learning educational theory by reading and observation of instruction
3. The importance of criticism and questions from the others and a talk with many teachers
4. The importance of preparation of teaching and the practice
Next he has always respected for autonomy and originality of children based on theories of child-centered education. But occasionally, he has taught positively in case of necessity without the doctrine. He emphasized that self-discipline and character-build are important for teachers. But on the other hand he had view of the teaching profession to enjoy his job based on his educational practice and study. As a teacher works harder, children grow better. He emphasized that the person who could enjoy the pleasure of this spirit had qualification as a guide of learning. The ability integrated his study with his practice was formed while he made an effort every day for the study of educational practice seeking for the practical subject how the teacher could lead children to autonomous learning. I think that a teacher should acquire his or her ability and attitude not by means of forced a standardized spirit upon a teacher by the power of the outside but by means of studying freely with the systematic and social preparation of requirements.
This article has two purposes. The first purpose is to investigate a trend of reorganization of department of education in Japan. The second one is to investigate student's preferences of specialty in Hokkaido University of Education in Kushiro Campus. Many universities in Japan integrated teacher education courses. Hokkaido University of Education also integrated training courses for kindergarten, primary school and secondary school in order to train teachers who have comprehensive practice of education. The University stopped belonging of students to specialties for semester to grow up students' broad perspectives on education. We surveyed student's preference of specialties in March, June, and July 1999. Our results suggest that many students prefer pedagogy, educational psychology, infant education, and method of education. These students are interested in human beings. It is important to increase number of academics in education faculty and of subject such as pedagogy, educational psychology, infant education and method of education.
Several years ago, as part of the teacher training course at Keiwa College, students were given an opportunity to be Teaching Assistants and work with “mentor” teachers in the college level English oral communucation classes. It was hoped that the students' exeperiences as Teaching Assistants would help them prepare for their teaching practicums at junior and senior high schools. This paper will describe the rationale behind this on-going program, explain how the program is being conducted, and will review comments and suggestions from the students who have participated as Teaching Assistants.