Teachers are in a position where they have to take the final responsibilities for education. It is quite natural that they make enormous efforts of the improvement of their own growth. As the world and children are continuously changing, without their responsibilities, there would be no room for teachers to accomplish their duty.
Recently there have been increasing numbers of delinquency at school and students have had a fear of going to school, which have created today's unstable situation of school. At the same time, the society feels its future uncertain and our value is not stably defined. The teachers' responsibilities for teaching children toward the next century is quite high.
The question is how the teachers can grow and what the important points for it are. I regard it as to have a deep understanding of human beings. Everyone can try to understand children as human beings, and it changes teacher and children dramatically. Consequently, the understand in creates philosophy of respect for human beings in a classroom and it also defines of proper method of teaching.
Teaching does not mean to domesticate children as teachers wish. It will surely turn to be impossible if there is a deep understanding of human beings. Teaching must provide good effects for each child.
The key to teachers' growth is to pay warm attention to children who are stumbling or failing. Only growing teacher can discover a number of importance of human beings and cope with hard society in the future. The immediate issue of both education and the society is to recover the value of what human being are.
Inquiry on teaching profession is destined to encounter an aporia, which contains two dichotomous rational interpretations on the professional, teacher as a technical expert and teacher as a reflective practitioner. The dichotomous approaches generate different conceptions on teaching profession, professional competence, practical discourse on teaching and its mode of presentation.
This paper illuminates several epistemological components which reflective teachers retain, such as reflective thinking in practice, deliberative thinking as theory through practice, practical epistemology and wisdom of teachers. Through rethinking these coceptions, this paper elucidates critical issues for reform, such as social context of professional growth, role of mentor teacher and structure of preservice and inservice teacher education.
The idea of reflecitve teaching opens an alternative way to empower teachers' professionalism. It enables teachers to emancipate themselves from bureaucratic school system and its culture, and to restructure their schools through building professional community and establishing a solid professional culture of teaching.
Juvenile training schools are national institutions receving those juveniles aged 14 to 19 who are committed thereto by family courts as a re- educative measure to give them correctional training. The education in the juvenile training school is called “correctional education” done by the correctional instructors. The main objective of this article is to explain the knowledge of the instructor, how those knowledges are gained and how the training system of the instructor.
The main contents of the article are as follows:
In section 2 titled “Treatment of Juvenile Delinquents”, the treatment system of juvenile delinquents especially the legal system until they enter the juvenile training school is overviewed. In section 3 titled “Juvenile Training school”, the purpose of juvenile training school, type of juvenile training school, term of period, classification system and treatment process are explained. In section 4 titled “Correctional Education”, in section 5 titled “Individual treatment program” and in section 6 titled “Confinement and Security in Juvenile Training School”, the educational program, contents of education based on 5 educational programs, and individual treatment program are emphasized and the difference between correctional instructor and teacher in public school is also explained. “The Building and Structure of Juvenile Training School”, and “Organization and Staff of Juvenile Training school”, are touched upon in section 7 and section 8. In section 9 titled “Staff Training”, the training system and subjects of training are overviewed. “Technical Skill and Knowledge for Correctional Instructor” are considered in section 10. Lastly, in section 11 titled “Furture Subjects”, three points related to the staff of correctional education are suggested.
The purpose of this paper is to clalify the students' image of teacher and their needs for teacher education.
Our survey conducted to the students of Tsukuba University is to identify the students' view of teacher and classes in the University. The number of students who responded the survey were 406. This paper reexaminaed this survey to consider image of teacher and needs for teacher education.
The results are as follows.
1. The image of teacher that students have is very sufferable one. But the students regard the work of teacher as satisfactory.
2. Many students want to learn the practical knowledge.
3. Need for active participation in classes.
In conclusion, two points will be discussed; the relation between the teachers' culture and practical knowledge, consideration of teacher education in a sense of the education in the adolescence.
Having been a teacher of elementary school for thirty years, I hope that there would be more teachers who try to apply Convention on the right of the child to the practices of education.
Therefore I would like to discuss that it is possible to develop as a teacher by acquiring positive attitude by learning from children. Three points concerning this issue will be examined in this paper.
The first point focuses on the importance of teachers, making an effort of understanding what children expect from them sympathetically.
“Children want a place to be”, which is one of the thing that they expect from teachers. This paper discusses understanding of children's expectation with interviews and observation of their behavior by citing practical examples as lessons. It is essential that teachers take time and care children in order to understand their expectation sympathetically.
The second point emphasizes that when children look negative, it is impossible to create practices to draw their possibilities without changing our attitude.
It can be possible to change our attitude when teachers themselves have “amusement-mind”. If teachers take care of children with amusement-mind, they will notice that children can develop much more sophisticated “amusement-mind”.
Connected by the amusement-mind, teachers and children have the same culture in common and share humane warmth.
The third point focuses on how to take care of negative attitude shown by juvenile children in their early stage.
I would like to emphasize the importance to find out something active which encourage children to grow while they show negative attitude.
Teachers themselves must learn that children have power to overcome contradictions and that they grow and develop dialectically. With the example of an alienation in a female student group, I would like to define the importance to be a teacher who can trust and wait for children by introducing children's behavior to create new selves.
Compared with school teachers, it is not easy to limit the scop of educators of social education. In a limited sense, special professions, such as a social education officer, a librarian at library, and literary staff at museum, are exemplified. In a broad sense, not only such administrative staff, but the people from a lecturer/an adviser of social education enterprise to a leader of voluntary group should be included. Thus, it is difficult to limit the scope. Therefore, the education and training, placing the focus on mainly administrative staff, are studied in this report.
The content of this report are as follows: First, the outline of the education and training for adminstrative staff is introduced. Next, an example of the training at university and self- formation as a lecturer/an adviser are introduced through the writer's experience. Lastly, the subjects in the future are mentioned, illustrating some examples of the most recent student- oriented training.
The present education and training are charged with many problems. The most fundamental problem is that the position of staff as a special professional, which is a prerequisite for the education and training, is not established. Besides, it is deficient definitely to see only the field of social education. According to the recent trend of social education, the education and training are needed, taking a broad view of things, not only in the field of social education, but also in the fields of regional medical service, regional social welfare, voluntary activities, enterprise activities, and so on. Taking this fact into consideration, interchange of educational practices related to the education and training is required, as a subject in the future.
The rapid change or social reality, university education reality, and the reality of the place of education calls for a dramatic reform of how teacher education should be. The author pursues this issue aiming at developing creative teacher, that is research practical people.
Teacher are called “research practioner” because they are engaged in their own practice and they need to establish a cycle of research; fact of children analysis of it and problem setting establishment of plan of instruction behavior of teachers' repeatition of those procedures. This cycle has to be embraced by those who are actually engaged in teacher education. They also have to improve problems raised by the issue.
Most part of teacher education has been devoted to mainly delivering knowledge, however in order to develop research practitioner, we also need to develop higher-level teacher education with regard to the methodological knowledge and the problem pursuing knowledge. Moreover not only lectural forms, but also various forms of classes are required to be considered while all the participants creatively participate in class processes.
Therefore, the author emphasizes developing participants' autonomous activities, combining “the wit of physical expression and the wit of written and spoken language”, and creating deep interdepence between on- site practices and theory.
Concerning the issues above, the author gives a definition to his workshop for teachers in a classroom and college courses of “Method of Guidance and Discipline” and “Theory of Education Beyond Classroom”, especially with examples of “Cultural Activities and Lesson of Event Creation”, “Analysis is of Prctical Record”, and “Writing of Practical Record”.
In this paper, the author intends to clarify the characteristics and significance of current strategies of INSET (In-service Education of Teachers) in Britain (England and Wales). The author's focus is the case analysis of certain INSET course at Cambridge Institute of Education, which the author attended as a participant observer in spring and summer term of 1991-1992 academic year.
In Britain, although the system and provisions of INSET had been greatly developed since the James Report (1972), it seems that current main style of it is course attendance one which are provided by the many related agencies (DES, LEA, institutes of higher education, and professional associations etc.)
The Cambridge Institute of Education was established in 1950 and is funded by direct grant from the Department of Education and Science. This institute are recognized as a centre for in-service education and educational research in the region of East Anglia.
The INSET course that the author selects as a typical and interesting case is as follows. Its title is “Developing whole School Curriculum in the Primary schools.” Its participants are twenty members including headteachers, deputy headteachers, and curriculum coordinators of primary schools. They are required to perform some assignments before every 10 day session. They often present and exchange own concerns and tasks one another and discuss eagerly the effective strategies or methods for whole school curriculum development through two tutors' advices and suggestions. Finally they attain following views of curriculum development: (1) Whole school curriculum development requires all staffs' change of values and beliefs and their dissemination and acceptance among children of the school. (2) It relates to the conditions of both persons and organizations, asks for the persons' spontaneity and enduring pursuit of long-term goal attainment. (3) It has four stages of practical mastery of shared beliefs for attainment of good enough educational products; opportunity, support (by administrative staffs), demonstration (by stimulated staffs), and dissemination.
Based on the above case analysis, as concluding words of this paper the author suggests that Japan's implementation of INSET needs the refinement of basic view of INSET and appropriate and flexible adoption of strategies responding to individual teacher or school needs.
In 1987 NCATE Standards were redesigned. AACTE President Eugene E. Eubanks, (1988), said its Foreword, “The challenges posed by new accreditation standards in teacher education are quite different from those of other professions. Rather than defining minimums that constitute accepted or acceptable norms of practice, standards of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education(NCATE) require that the individual unit exercise a first responsibility by describing its perspective on excellence in professional practice. In so doing, the unit must defend the rationale, process, and outcomes associated with its own approach. One of the results is an impetus for institutions to address 'state of the art' conceptions of professional excellence, a focus particularly evident in standards on the knowledge base. Another and equally significant consequence of this approach is a challenge for the unit to address the standards through a continuing process of deliberation among its faculty.” I would like to conclude this paper with Eugene E. Eubanks' foreword.