KONA Powder and Particle Journal
Online ISSN : 2187-5537
Print ISSN : 0288-4534
ISSN-L : 0288-4534
Current issue
Displaying 1-23 of 23 articles from this issue
Front Cover
Contents
Editorial
Review Papers
  • Hiroaki Watanabe, Wei Zhang
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 3-13
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: June 18, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    This paper describes the reviews of the recent works in analysis, modeling, and simulation of the motion of a non-spherical particle. The motion of the non-spherical particles was analyzed in detail by means of a fully resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS). From the DNS data, the PDF-based drag coefficient model was proposed and applied to the particle dispersion simulation in an isotropic turbulent flow to assess the effect of the particle shape by comparing it with the motion of a spherical particle. Moreover, the model was applied to a large-eddy simulation (LES) of particle dispersion in an axial jet flow and validated by comparing it with the experimental data. Results showed that the effect of the particle shape was clearly observed in the characteristics of the particle dispersion in the isotropic turbulent flow by evaluating the deviation from the Poisson distribution (D number) and the radial distribution function (RDF). It was found that the non-spherical particle’s representative Stokes number becomes larger as the sphericity increases. Furthermore, it was also revealed that the effects of the particle size distribution and the shape observed in the experiment was precisely captured by the LES that coincided with the trend found in the isotropic turbulent flow.

  • Makio Naito, Takahiro Kozawa, Akira Kondo, C.C. Huang
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 14-28
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: November 13, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    J-STAGE Data

    To create advanced materials with minimal energy consumption and environmental impacts, a green and sustainable powder processing technology is essential. The authors have developed this technique based on powder grinding technology. In this paper, the authors will explain the recent progress of the smart powder processing, and its applications. Firstly, particle bonding process, and novel one-pot processing methods to synthesize nanoparticles, to create nanostructured composite granules and to form nano-porous films on substrates in dry phase will be discussed. Their applications on the advanced material fabrications contributing to the sustainable economy will also be explained. Then, the use of grinding technology in wet processing to synthesize nanoparticles and control their morphology will be explained. Smart powder processing can be a foundation to move forward material development technologies and create many more high-quality advanced materials in the future.

  • Jiaqi Dong, Brij M. Moudgil
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 29-49
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: January 29, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Particulate and surfactant systems are an integral part either in processing or product lines in essentially every major industry, including Energy and Minerals, Pharmaceutical, Agriculture & Food, Microelectronics, Healthcare, Cosmetics, Consumer Products, and Analytical Instrumentation & Services. In most applications, product and process specifications depend on the synergistic or competitive interactions between the particles and reagent schemes. The primary goal of our research efforts has been to generate the structure-property-performance correlations-based knowledge and technology platforms for industry to develop more sustainable products and processes. Engineering the physicochemical/mechanical properties of surfaces, particles, and self-assembling surfactant systems enables their enhanced performance in industrial applications. Specifically, understanding and control of the nano and atomic-scale forces between particles and synthesis of functionalized particles form the foundation for targeted contributions in biomedical, advanced materials and minerals, sensor, and coating technologies. A synoptic overview of selected projects is presented in this review. Additional details can be found in the topic-specific references listed at the end of this manuscript.

  • Arno Kwade, Marcel Möller, Jannes Müller, Jutta Hesselbach, Sabrina Ze ...
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 50-73
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: April 23, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) provide the largest source of electrical energy storage today. This paper covers the use of comminution processes and, thus, crushers and mills for particle breakage and dispersing, as well as classifiers for particle separation within the process chain, from the raw material to the final lithium battery cell and its recycling at end of life. First of all, the raw materials for the active material production have to be produced either by processing primary raw materials, or by recycling the spent lithium batteries. The end-of-life battery cells have to be shredded, the materials separated and then milled in order to achieve the so-called black mass, which provides a secondary material source with very valuable components. Using these materials for the synthesis of the cathode active materials, milling has to be applied in different stages. The natural graphite, increasingly used as anode material, has to be designed in mills and classifiers for achieving targeted properties. Nanosized silicon is produced by nanomilling using stirred media mills as a primary option. Conductive additives for LIBs, like carbon black, have to be dispersed in a solvent with machines like planetary mixers, extruders or stirred media mills. In the future, mechanochemical synthesis of solid electrolytes will especially require additional application of comminution processes.

  • Kenta Takagi, Yusuke Hirayama, Shusuke Okada, Akihide Hosokawa, Wataru ...
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 74-93
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: May 21, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Higher performance is constantly required in rare earth permanent magnets, which are an indispensable component of the motors of electric vehicles. When producing sintered magnets, advanced structural control is necessary in the powder metallurgy process in order to achieve high performance. Especially in recent years, it has become important to develop processes for Sm-Fe-N magnets and metastable phase magnets as next-generation magnets to replace the Nd-Fe-B magnets. Because the crystal grain refinement of sintered magnets is most effective for improving coercivity, production methods for raw powders have evolved from the traditional pulverization to chemical synthesis approaches, and as a result, a submicron-sized Sm-Fe-N powder with huge coercivity has been developed. State-of-the-art physical synthesis methods have also been applied successfully to the synthesis of nanopowders. Since control of the grain boundary is very effective in Nd-Fe-B magnets, this approach has also been evolved to Sm-Fe-N magnets by nano coating. On the other hand, since technologies for crystalline orientation control and high-density sintering are indispensable for improvement of remanence, new low-thermal load consolidation techniques such as spark plasma sintering are being developed for Sm-Fe-N magnets and metastable phase magnets in order to overcome the inherent low thermal stability of these materials.

  • Shu Yin, Takuya Hasegawa
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 94-108
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: September 10, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    J-STAGE Data

    It is well known that the functionality of inorganic materials strongly depends on the chemical composition, morphology, particle size, crystal facet, etc., which are strongly influenced by the synthesis process. The precise control of the synthesis process is expected to lead to the discovery of new functionality and improvement of the functionality of materials. For example, in a high-temperature solid-phase reaction, it is difficult to control the morphology of nanocrystals. On the other hand, synthesizing functional materials using solution processes, such as hydrothermal and solvothermal reactions, makes it possible to control the morphology and particle size precisely. Usually, the solution process is strongly related to the dissolution reprecipitation mechanism. Therefore, the material composition can be strictly controlled and is suitable for forming fine particles with high crystallinity. In this review paper, the role of the solvent in the solution process, its effect on particle size and morphology of the transition metal oxide, and the related functional improvement will be focused. Furthermore, the direct formation of functional thin films by the solution process and the morphology control by non-oxide materials by the topotactic reaction will also be introduced.

  • Tetsuo Kondo
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 109-123
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: February 16, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Advances in nanotechnology have changed conventional concepts in materials science. This has also strongly influenced natural biomass products with hierarchically built-up structures. In general, hierarchical structures in bio-based materials are built up by molecular self-assembly, followed by nanoassembly to form higher-level structures. Key to each step is the formation of interactions at each individual scale. Nature usually achieves such fabrication through a bottom-up process. However, fabrication can also be achieved through a top-down process, with various such downsizing methods now in development. This review article aims to describe trends in nanofiber technology among downsizing processes applied to cellulose as a representative biomass, ranging from fundamentals to recent techniques. The advantages of our recently developed technique, nanopulverization by aqueous counter collision, are also discussed. This method successfully decomposes interactions selectively without damaging the molecular structure, finally liberating components of various sizes into water to provide a transparent and homogeneous component–water system. As nanocellulose research is a broad area involving various fields, the cited references are limited to the scope of the author’s knowledge.

  • Zhengyuan Teng, Wenan Cai, Teruhisa Ohno
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 124-148
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: April 02, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Photocatalytic H2O2 production based on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) materials has been attracting increasing attention. However, it is difficult to reveal the inner relationships among the structure, properties and performance of a g-C3N4-based photocatalyst by simply summarizing preparation methods, properties and performances in previous works. In this review, the three most important issues for improving H2O2 generation based on the band diagram and physicochemical properties of pristine g-C3N4 are proposed. Improvement of the charge separation, promotion of the light absorption and introduction of active sites for 2e oxygen reduction reaction to suppress side reactions are the most three attractive strategies for enhancing the activities. Following discussion of these strategies, representative functionalization methods are summarized on the basis of the most desired properties for improving the photocatalytic activities for H2O2 production. Other influence factors for improving H2O2 production such as addition of electron donors and adjustment of pH value of the solution are also discussed. Future challenges for photocatalytic H2O2 based on g-C3N4 materials are also summarized to provide future directions in this field.

  • Mani Ordoubadi, Hui Wang, Reinhard Vehring
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 149-171
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: July 09, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    Spray drying is gaining traction in the pharmaceutical industry as one of the processing methods of choice for the manufacture of solid dosage forms intended for pulmonary, oral, and parenteral delivery. This process is particularly advantageous because of its ability to produce engineered particles with improved efficacy and stability by combining active pharmaceutical ingredients or biologics with appropriate excipients. Moreover, due to its high throughput, continuous operation, and ability to produce thermostable solid powders, spray drying can be a manufacturing method of choice in the production of drugs and other formulations, including vaccines, for global distribution. Formulation design based on a mechanistic understanding of the different phenomena that occur during the spray drying of powders is complicated and can therefore make the use of available particle formation models difficult for the practitioner. This review aims to provide step-by-step guidance accompanied by critical background information for the successful formulation design of spray-dried microparticles. These include discussion of the tools needed to estimate the surface concentration of each solute during droplet drying, their times and modes of solidification, and the amount of glass stabilizers and shell formers required to produce stable and dispersible powders.

  • Sara E. Maloney, Jeffrey B. Mecham, Anthony J. Hickey
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 172-185
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: September 03, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    It is well established that the critical performance metrics for aerosol products are aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) and delivered dose uniformity (DDU). In broad terms, these performance characteristics dictate the efficiency and reproducibility with which an aerosol is administered clinically. However, these properties alone do not support in-vitro, in-vivo correlations. There have been numerous publications attempting to more directly link product performance testing to physiological relevance or further to draw direct correlations of relevance to bioequivalence testing for the development of generic products. While these novel methods have been employed in product development activity, their suitability for compendial testing has yet to be established. This paper explores the potential to establish biologically relevant compendial standards for dry powder inhaler products while maintaining accuracy and reproducibility of data collected to support the quality and performance of the product.

  • Tomohiro Iwasaki
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 186-196
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: September 03, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have attracted much attention due to increasing interest in global social, energy and environmental problems. The immediate contribution to the achievement of the SDGs is required in all individual and industrial activities. The industries dealing with fine particles are also no exception to the demand and have actively worked on the contribution. Conventionally, fine particles have been industrially synthesized in gas, liquid and solid phases using top-down and bottom-up approaches. Among them, dry synthesis processes are promising from a viewpoint of the SDGs due to the solvent-free and simplicity, which can lead to energy saving, efficient resource utilization, waste management, etc. This review describes dry mechanical processes for synthesis of fine particles, particularly focusing on grinding and mechanochemical treatment.

  • Kiet Le Anh Cao, Ferry Iskandar, Eishi Tanabe, Takashi Ogi
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 197-218
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: September 23, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    J-STAGE Data

    The development of energy storage devices providing high energy and power densities and long-term stability will play an important role in the future utilization of sustainable energy sources. Numerous efforts have been devoted to achieving these requirements, especially the design of advanced electrode materials. For this reason, there is growing interest in the innovation of new carbon-based materials with enhanced electrochemical performance. Nanostructured carbon spheres (CSs) have attracted significant attention due to their prominent properties, such as high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, tunable porosity, and surface functionality. This review offers a comprehensive overview into the recent advances of nanostructured CSs within the last five years, focusing on synthetic strategies for producing carbon particles with precisely controlled morphologies and interior structures, as well as the potential applications of these particles as high-performance electrode materials in rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. The challenges and perspectives on future research directions are highlighted, focusing on the controlled synthesis and functionalization of nanostructured CSs with tunable structures and properties that are well-suited to practical applications. This review is intended to serve as a helpful resource to researchers involved in the fabrication of new CS materials and the development of methods to control their structure and morphology.

Original Research Papers
  • Gianandrea Vittorio Messa, Qi Yang, Maria Graça Rasteiro, Pedro Faia, ...
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 219-235
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: June 04, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    J-STAGE Data

    This research work is a significant step toward further understanding of the β-σ two-fluid model for the simulation of fully-suspended slurry flows in pipeline systems, with the goal of enhancing its potential for scientific research and engineering applications. Particularly, the focus of the study is the characterization and handling of the two main empirical coefficients of the model, namely, β and σ, which require case-specific tuning based on a given set of experimental data. Reference is made to the relevant case of slurry transport in horizontal pipes with infinite length. The influence of β and σ on different features of the fluid dynamic solution has been extensively investigated, considering also the role played by the specific testing conditions. Based on these findings, a procedure for determining appropriate values of β and σ has been developed, which requires only two experimental measurements, namely the concentration profile from a test at moderate slurry concentration, and the hydraulic gradient from another test in which the same slurry flows at high concentration. The procedure has been satisfactorily tested against published experimental data on pipe transport of fine glass bead and sand slurry.

  • Taichi Kimura, Riko Iwamoto, Mikio Yoshida, Tatsuya Takahashi, Shuji S ...
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 236-249
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: June 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    J-STAGE Data

    In this study, in order to optimize a fabrication process for SiO2/TiO2 composite particles and control their coating ratio (CTi), regression models for the coating process were constructed using various machine learning techniques. The composite particles with a core (SiO2)/shell (TiO2) structure were synthesized by mechanical stress under various fabrication conditions with respect to the supply volume of raw materials (V), addition ratio of TiO2 (rTi), operation time (t), rotor rotation speed (S), and temperature (T). Regression models were constructed by the least squares method (LSM), principal component regression (PCR), support vector regression (SVR), and the deep neural network (DNN) method. The accuracy of the constructed regression models was evaluated using the determination coefficients (R2) and the predictive performance was evaluated by comparing the prediction coefficients (Q2). From the perspective of the R2 and Q2 values, the DNN regression model was found to be the most suitable model for the present coating process. Moreover, the effects of the fabrication parameters on CTi were analyzed using the constructed DNN model. The results suggested that the t value was the dominant factor determining CTi of the composite particles, with the plot of CTi versus t displaying a clear maximum.

  • Ecevit Bilgili
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 250-261
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: April 23, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    J-STAGE Data

    The aim of this theoretical investigation is to seek any similarities between the Austin model and the Kotake–Kanda (KK) model for the specific breakage rate function in the population balance model (PBM) used for tumbling ball milling and assess feasibility of the KK model for scale-up. For both models, the limiting behavior for small particle size-to-ball size ratio and the extremum behavior for a given ball size are described by “power-law.” Motivated by this similarity, specific breakage rate data were generated using the Austin model parameters obtained from the lab-scale ball milling of coal and fitted by the KK model successfully. Then, using the Austin’s scale-up methodology, the specific breakage rate was scaled-up numerically for various mill diameter scale-up ratios and ball sizes of 30–49 mm and coal particle sizes of 0.0106–30 mm. PBM simulations suggest that the KK model predicts identical evolution of the particle size distribution to that by the Austin model prior to scale-up. Upon scale-up, the differences are relatively small. Hence, modification of the exponents in the Austin’s scale-up methodology is not warranted for scale-up with the KK model. Overall, this study has established the similarity of both models for simulation and scale-up.

  • Victor A. Rodriguez, Túlio M. Campos, Gabriel K.P. Barrios, Gilvandro ...
    2023 Volume 40 Pages 262-276
    Published: January 10, 2023
    Released on J-STAGE: February 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    J-STAGE Data

    Mathematical models of high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR) have attracted great attention, owing to their role in optimization of operating machines as well as in the design and selection of new ones. Although population balance models (PBM) and the discrete element method (DEM) have been used in this task, both suffer from important limitations. Whereas PBMs have challenges associated to the prediction of operating gap and to the validity of several of its assumptions in different formulations in the literature, application of DEM has its own challenges, in particular when fed with distributions containing large amounts of fines. This work proposes a hybrid approach in which the coupling of DEM to particle replacement models and multibody dynamics is used to predict operating gap, throughput and power, as well as providing information along the rolls length that is used in PBM to predict the product fineness. The hybrid approach is then compared to both DEM and a PBM (Modified Torres and Casali), demonstrating similar results to the later when applied to simulating a pilot-scale machine operating under different conditions, but improved prediction when applied in scale-up to an industrial-scale HPGR.

Information Articles
feedback
Top