Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) technology is the combined process of mechanical separation and biological volume reduction/drying that can handle urban waste as a means of controlling the amount and quality of waste going into landfills. The combination of mechanical and biological processes is decided upon in a flexible way depending on waste characteristics and the required quality of the material or energy being used. MBT system has often been evaluated by its marketability of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF). Although the marketability of SRF is comparably low in Southeast Asia, where there is a need to overhaul urban waste management systems, the effective volume reduction by MBT would prove its feasibility for this region. In local and middle-small scale municipalities in Korea, MBT feasibility is comparable to thermal treatment, with the expectation that there would be industrial demand for SRF. In Japan, it is hard to change to MBT from thermal treatment, which has prevailed as a sanitary and effective waste decomposition technology, despite the fact that financing waste treatment must be improved in most local governments. Small-scale incinerators that don’t have thermal recovery processing, mainly located in small municipalities in the countryside or isolated islands, would be high on the list for MBT replacement. The MBT system should certainly be investigated as an option for waste pretreatment, taking into consideration local meteorological conditions, the area’s history of waste management and social acceptability.
The European Union’s Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC), Waste Directive (2008/98/EC) and Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) have greatly contributed to development of the MBT system in Europe. The influence of these directives on waste management, the outline of MBT technology and the classification of the MBT system are described in this article. The MBT system is divided into three categories, which include the composting process, the bio-drying (RDF production) process and the methane fermentation process. Two examples of actual MBT facilities were investigated in February, 2011 and are introduced in the paper : 1) EGV MBT facility in Rostock, Germany ; 2) SYTRAD MBT facility in Valence, France.
In both developed and developing countries, the adoption of methods like following The 3Rs and practicing separate waste collections will not be enough to respond to the issues of expanded resource recirculation and climate change. In addition to these important practices, it will be necessary to work toward greater material and energy recovery from the residual municipal solid waste that is being treated and disposed of. There is a new concept in the field of waste treatment that is known as Bio-drying MBT technology. This technology makes it possible to meet specific regional conditions and to minimize reliance on landfills by maximizing material and energy recovery. It is currently regarded as the most suitable alternative for these specific regions and sustainable waste management. In Europe, strict regulations with the aim of reducing biodegradable waste amounts in landfills and generation of MSW, has resulted in an overall change in waste characteristics and waste management systems. Bio-drying MBT may become a good solution for establishing appropriate regions and sustainable solid waste management in both developed and developing countries.
Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) can separate and recycle municipal solid waste (MSW) while also reducing the waste that is finally going to the disposal site. In this paper, two MBT facilities under operation in Thailand are introduced and cost benefits are analyzed for model cases according to these facilities throughout their operational period. MBT facilities adopt the bio-dry process using solar drying and biological fermentation heat for reduction of moisture in the MSW. Products from these facilities were utilized as industrial solid fuel. After 20 years of operation at the MBT facilities, cheaper costs for production of the refuse derived fuel (RDF) and land disposal of residues could result in improvement to the overall cost benefit ratio (CBR).
Global warming and labor shortages are problems that also affect waste treatment. Although the situation has been improved at landfills with spare capacity, the current situation is still lacking. We must therefore address a range of issues like dust emission reduction, promotion of recycling, and overall efficiency of waste processing. The sorting machine is a machine that can be used for the promotion of these measures. This paper introduces the sorting machine and how it can be effectively used in mixed waste processing. In addition, the current situation and future direction of mixed waste processing is investigated based on a composition survey that offers results for two types of mixed waste.
This paper traces the historical perspective based on Germany’s experiences with mechanical and biological treatment (MBT), introducing this technology from the pretreatment processes before landfilling for resource recovery. The applicability of MBT for waste management systems in Japan is also discussed. MBT is considered to be a generic process, in which element technologies, such as shredding, separation, aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion, are integrated as a system. This is done according to certain objectives that include minimization of landfilled waste and maximization of resource recovery. MBT is not to be considered an alternative to the incineration process, but to be carried out in collaboration with incineration. In thinking of future waste management systems for Japan, which must address the issues of waste reduction and changes in waste qualities due to population decrease and promotion of recycling, MBT can provide beneficial opportunities in the reconsideration of Japan’s waste management systems, especially with regard to recovery of resources and energy.