The phylogenetic relationships of the superfamily Scorpaenoidea are reconstructed cladistically, based on specimens belonging to 18 families, 59 genera, and 86 species, by using osteological and myological characters recognized in 111 transformation series. The following relationships are inferred: (1) the former Scorpaenoidei is paraphyletic; (2) the family Sebastidae is not monophyletic, most of the genera included having initially branched off other ingroup taxa; (3) the family Setarchidae and Trachyscorpia have a sister relationship, being nested within the paraphyletic Scorpaenidae; and (4) the family Neosebastidae is the sister group of the former Platycephaloidei. In conclusion, the Scorpaenoidea is reclassified into 20 families, accepting several redefined taxa, such as the Sebastidae, Sebastolobidae, and Scorpaenidae.
A new species of the freshwater ostracod genus Metacypris is reported from Kushiro Marsh, Hokkaido, Japan. Two large posterior brood chambers in the females give this species a perfect heart shape in dorsal view. The male is characterized by a digit-shaped plate on each hemipenis. This is the second living species of Metacypris to be described; the other species, M. cordata Brady and Robertson, 1870, is restricted to Europe. Furthermore, this new species of Metacypris is only the second endemic freshwater cytheroidean species so far reported from Japan and the first record of the family Limnocytheridae in Japan.
Cirolana kokoru sp. nov and Cirolana quechso sp. nov. (Cirolanidae) are described from shallow-water coastal habitats around New Zealand and east at the Chatham Islands. Cirolana kokoru had previously been recorded from New Zealand as an Australian species, Cirolana australiense Hale, 1925. Cirolana kokoru occurs in rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats to a recorded depth of 29m; Cirolana quechso is primarily subtidal from 5.5 to 59m, habitat records indicating a preference for sand substrata.
Five species of the family Tetranychidae are reported for the first time in Sumatra, Indonesia. One of these species is described as new to science: Oligonychus sumatranus sp. nov. from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. The new species is distinctive in that tibia I has eight tactile setae and the aedeagus gently bends ventrad to form a slender, nearly straight distal hook. The female of Schizotetranychus malayanus Ehara, 1988, previously unknown, is described; leg I of some females is recognized to exhibit the chaetotaxy similar to that in males.
Five species of the genus Neopodocinum (family Macrochelidae) are reported from the body surface of dung beetles from Kalimantan, Indonesia. Neopodocinum halimunense Hartini and Takaku, 2003, N. maius Berlese, 1911, and N. subjaspersi Hartini and Takaku, 2003 are recorded from Kalimantan for the first time. Cosmiphis bosschai (Oudemans, 1901) is referred to the genus Neopodocinum, and description of its protonymph is provided, along with redescriptions of its female, male, and deutonymph. Neopodocinum kalimantanense is described as new to science; it resembles N. bosschai but is distinguishable by the shape of some setae in the middle of female's dorsal shield.