Thirteen taxa belonging to five subgenera of the genus Ceratina Latreille, 1802 are recorded from Nepal. Six of them are described as five new species, C. (Ceratina) belliata sp. nov., C. (Neoceratina) takeshii sp. nov., C. (Catoceratina) splendida sp. nov., C. (Ceratinidia) himalayana sp. nov., and C. (Ceratinidia) gurkhana sp. nov., and a new subspecies of C. (Ceratinidia) okinawana Matsumura and Uchida, 1926, C. okinawana nepalensis ssp. nov. Close relatives of the new taxa are discussed.
A new species of Phreodrilidae is described from Lake Biwa, Japan, using classical morphology and a 658 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a potential "DNA barcode". Astacopsidrilus ryuteki sp. nov. is unusual in possessing dorsal bundles each represented by only a single seta, instead of the usual hair and support setae. Among other phreodrilids, this feature has been reported only in Nesodrilus isochaeta Pinder and Brinkhurst, 1997 and Insulodrilus bifidus Pinder and Brinkhurst, 1997, both described from Australia. The new species possesses paired spermathecal setae and peculiar voluminous, pendant penes. This is the first record of the family in Japan, a circumstance that contradicts the assumed Gondwanan origin of the Phreodrilidae. Because any hypothesis of a former zoogeographical connection between Japan (or other parts of Asia) and Australia is unsupported by any other biogeographical data, it is probable that A. ryuteki was introduced to Japan from the Southern Hemisphere. Conversely, the tubificid Embolocephalus yamaguchii (Brinkhurst, 1971) appears to have been introduced into Australia from Japan.
Ten pelagic juveniles (21.2-16.2 mm in standard length, SL) of the morid Laemonema longipes Schmidt, 1938, collected from off northeastern Japan, are described, with special reference to their ontogenetic changes. The present juveniles all have the following characters: an elongated body, long dorsal and anal fin bases, elongated pelvic fin rays, a bony tubercle on the lower jaw symphysis, absence of both a chin barbel and a ventral luminous organ, heavy pigmentation except on the caudal region and all fins, five first dorsal fin rays, 50-52 second dorsal fin rays, 45-50 anal fin rays, two to five pelvic fin rays, and 16-17 pectoral fin rays. The pelvic fins of specimens of 41.8 mm SL or less have five rays, whereas a single larger specimen of 46.2 mm SL has two rays. Ontogenetic reduction of pelvic fin rays in L. longipes thus evidently occurs at ca. 45 mm SL. In adults, vestiges of the three reduced inner fin rays are attached to the pelvic fin girdle along with the two elongated outer rays. The significance of the reduction of the inner pelvic fin rays in L. longipes is discussed, and some ecological features of the early life history of this species in the western North Pacific are noted.
Between the years 1995 and 2007, 48 nominal genera and 128 nominal species of nemerteans were established worldwide. During this period, taxonomic changes such as synonymization, alteration of affiliation to higher taxa, and resurrection of formerly invalid names were made for 26 genera and 69 species. The nominal genera and species established between 1995 and 2007, as well as the taxonomic changes made at the genus and species level, are listed here with their original citations. The type depositories for the nominal species established since 1995 are also mentioned. In total, 285 genera and 1275 species are currently recognized as valid in the phylum Nemertea. Their distribution among higher taxa is as follows: Palaeonemertea (12 genera, 110 species), Pilidiophora (101, 450), Monostilifera (116, 570), Reptantia (15, 46), and Pelagica (40, 98), in addition to one species in a monotypic genus, the higher taxonomic affinities of which are uncertain. Two taxonomic and one nomenclatural changes are proposed herein: Sundbergia Gibson, 2002 and Tetramys Iwata, 1957 are tentatively transferred from the Palaeonemertea to the Pilidiophora, and Polydendrorhynchus Yin and Zeng, 1986 is substituted for Dendrorhynchus Yin and Zeng, 1985 to avoid homonymy with Dendrorhynchus Keilin, 1920 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Gregarinea); the latter results a new combination Polydendrorhynchus zhanjiangensis (Yin and Zeng, 1984).
Pseudocrangonyx shikokunis Akatsuka and Komai, 1922, a poorly known subterranean amphipod, is redescribed and illustrated in detail based on the syntypes from Tokushima Prefecture and four additional specimens from Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Newly found diagnostic features and morphological variation of the species are discussed.