Two new species of the aulopiform family Aulopidae are described from waters off northern New Zealand, eastern Australia and the Tasman Sea. Hime pyrhistion sp. nov., previously confused with Hime japonica (Gunther, 1877), differs from that species in having a higher dorsal fin in both males and females, together with slight differences in colouration. Specific recognition of the two is supported by genetic evidence, with genetic distances of CO1 separating the two of a similar magnitude as distances between H. curtirostris (Thomson, 1967), H. diactithrix (Prokofiev, 2008) and H. japonica. A morphological redescription of H. japonica is provided for comparison. A new genus Leptaulopus is erected for Aulopus damasi Tanaka, 1915 and a second new species L. erythrozonatus sp. nov. is described from four specimens collected in northern New Zealand and eastern Australian waters. Leptaulopus is distinguishable from the other three genera of the family, Aulopus Cloquet, 1816, Hime Starks, 1924 and Latropiscis Whitley, 1931, most noticeably in having a more slender body, a more posteriorly placed dorsal fin, and finer, more cardiform teeth in the jaws, as well as relatively great genetic distances of CO1. The new species is separable from L. damasi by its more numerous dorsal fin rays (15 or 16 vs 13 or 14), lateral line scales (44 vs 33-37) and vertebrae (44 vs 36), smaller eye and longer, more depressed snout. A neotype is designated for L. damasi, and a revised description of the species is provided.
Pterois brevipectoralis (Mandrytsa, 2002), previously known only from the holotype and two paratypes collected from the Saya de Malha Bank (western Indian Ocean), in depths of 57-90m, is redescribed on the basis of 10 additional specimens collected from the type locality and the Cargados Carajos Shoals, Mascarene Islands. The species is characterized by the presence of usually XIII, 10 dorsal-fin rays, usually 16 pectoral-fin rays, a relatively low number (6-10) of dark blotches on the pectoral-fin membrane, a relatively short pectoral fin [longest ray 44.5-66.4 (mean 53.4)% SL; not extending beyond the level of the posterior end of the dorsal-fin base in specimens over 91.3mm SL], ctenoid scales covering the head and dorsolateral body, and the posterior portion of the pectoral-fin rays (not associated with fin membrane) with several bands. In addition, extremely large (greater than orbit diameter), fan-like skin flaps on the tip of the posterior lacrimal spine and the posterior margin of the preopercle in large adults are recognized herein as diagnostic characters for the species. The first report of fresh coloration, based on a specimen from the Saya de Malha Bank, is included, and ontogenetic changes in various features are described in detail.
Sebastes melanops Girard, 1856, formerly known from the Aleutian Islands and the southeastern Bering Sea to Baja California, USA, is reported from the western Pacific on the basis of two specimens collected from Iwate Prefecture on the Pacific coast of northern Japan. One of the Japanese specimens is described here in detail and compared with specimens from the eastern North Pacific. Sequence data from the mitochondrial DNA control region of this species are also provided and compared with closely related congeners. Sebastes columbianus (Hubbs and Schultz, 1933) is herein regarded as a junior synonym of S. melanops on the basis of an examination of type specimens. Conversely, another supposed junior synonym, S. simulans (Gill, 1864) may not be conspecific with S. melanops.
The taxonomic status of Platycephalus grandispinis Cuvier, 1829 was investigated. Although the holotypes of P. grandispinis and Platycephalus longispinis Macleay, 1884 closely resemble each other, having several characters in common (e.g., 14 second dorsal and anal fin rays, ca. 80 lateral line scales, the interorbit much narrower than the orbital diameter, no distinct interopercular flap, the supraoccipital with a ridge, and the lower preopercular spine much longer than the upper), they differ in the development of the skinny sensory tubes of the preopercle, which are more numerous and better developed in the former. After a detailed examination of the two holotypes and specimens referable to P. grandispinis and P. longispinis from southwestern to southeastern Australia, it was determined that these two nominal species are synonyms. Furthermore, the skinny sensory tubes tend to become more well developed with growth and to show a geographic cline, such a cline in any feature being recognized in the Platycephalidae for the first time. A cline was also recognized in the suborbital width, with a tendency for a greater width in the western population than the eastern. This study provides a detailed redescription of P. grandispinis, which has priority over P. longispinis.
Two species of Chromis, C. notata (Temminck and Schlegel, 1843) and C. kennensis Whitley, 1964, are redescribed, and the description of a new species, C. yamakawai sp. nov., is provided. Two nominal species that were previously regarded as valid, C. flavomaculata Kamohara, 1960 and C. miyakeensis Moyer and Ida, 1976, are synonymized with C. notata. Chromis villadolidi Jordan and Tanaka, 1927 is confirmed as a junior synonym of C. notata. Geographic variation of C. notata is discussed. Two populations previously treated as C. flavomaculata (regarded as a junior synonym of C. notata in this study) include two geographically disjunct species: C. kennensis, previously regarded as a junior synonym of C. flavomaculata, from the southwestern Pacific Ocean, and C. yamakawai from the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The morphology of four specimens of Stiphodon multisquamus Wu and Ni, 1986, collected from two streams on Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Archipelago, is described. This is the first record of this species of goby from Japan; it was formerly regarded as endemic to southern China (Hainan and Guangdong Provinces). Stiphodon multisquamus is very rare on Okinawa Island and may have arrived as a result of transport of pelagic larvae by ocean currents.
Paragrandidierella (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae) is reinstated for three species from Japan, P. minima Ariyama, 2002, P. unidentata (Ren, 2006), and P. urauchiensis sp. nov. Eight morphological features distinguish these species from species of the genus Grandidierella, with which Paragrandidierella was synonymized. Paragrandidierella urauchiensis sp. nov. was collected from a tidal flat at the mouth of the Urauchi River, Iriomote Island, Okinawa Prefecture. This new species has long antennae and a long, acute tooth on the posterodistal corner of the gnathopod 1 carpus in males. Paragrandidierella unidentata was collected from a tidal flat at the mouth of the Waka River, Wakayama Prefecture, as the first record of this species in Japan. It is characterized by a short antenna 2 and a short tooth on the posterodistal corner of the gnathopod 1 carpus in males. The morphology of the antennae, the detailed structure of the mouthparts, and the change in shape with growth of P. minima, the type species of the genus, are also described. A key to the species of the genus is provided.
Tanaidaceans collected from mangrove pneumatophores on the west coast of India included females and mancae of a new species of the rare and plesiomorphic family Teleotanaidae, described herein as Teleotanais indiaensisi sp. nov. A key to the species of Teleotanais Lang, 1956 is given. The new species can be distinguished from it two congeners by the following combination of characters: cephalothorax shorter than pereonites 1-3 combined; antennule without pigmentation, distal article incompletely fused with article 4 and with distal and subdistal aesthetascs; fixed finger of cheliped with two ventral, one ventro-subdistal, and four inner setae; uropodal endopod biarticulate.
We describe a new nototanaid, Nototanoides ohtsukai sp. nov., based on specimens from the Yaku-Shin-Sone Bank, Nansei Archipelago, southern Japan (North Pacific Ocean). This species differs from its only congener, N. trifurcatus Sieg and Heard, 1985, in having a short distal article in the antennule and in the position of a row of aesthetascs on that article. We also present a partial redescription of the nototanaid Paranesotanais longicephalus Larsen and Shimomura, 2008 and a key to the genera of the families Nototanaidae and Tanaissuidae.
A new genus of sphyrapodid tanaidaceans, Poligarida, represented by the two new species P. beni and P. keriakis, is described from samples off the coast of Brunei. With no mandibular palp, this genus falls within the subfamily Sphyrapodinae. With a normal sphyrapodid antennule bearing a two-segmented accessory flagellum, and with no squama on the antenna, it is closest to Ansphyrapus, but is distinguished from that genus by lacking the complex setation of the pereopods and in having an elongate second article of the antennal peduncle. The latter feature is more characteristic of the Pseudosphyrapodinae, casting some doubt on the status of these two subfamilies. Poligarida gen. nov. is unique in the family in lacking a maxillular palp, and in having an unusual setose mandibular molar. Sphyrapus stebbingi Richardson, 1911 is tentatively reassigned to Pseudosphyrapus, and an identification key to the genera of the Sphyrapodidae is presented.
Epitokous metamorphosis and swimming behaviour of the glycerid polychaete Glycera nicobarica Grube, 1866 are recorded for the first time, as the first such observation for any Asian glycerid. A total of 88 mature adults (epitokes) swimming in the surface water were collected from six sites in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, at various phases of the moon, mostly within two hours after sunset in July to November in 2009 to 2011. By a morphological comparison with 36 immature benthic individuals (atokes) of comparable body size, we confirmed characteristic features of epitokous metamorphosis, including flattening of the body, reduction of the proboscis, enlargement of the parapodia, elongation and increase in number of the chaetae, and addition of simple capillaries in the neuropodia. The epitokous metamorphosis of G. nicobarica is basically similar to those previously described in eight other species of Glycera.
The dactylogyrid monogenean Heteropriapulus heterotylus (Jogunoori, Kritsky and Venkatanarasaiah, 2004), most likely of neotropical origin, is reported from the gills of a new host, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), an armored catfish native to South America, collected in a reservoir on Okinawa Island, southern Japan. Illustrations and measurements are provided. This collection represents a new country and a new host record for the parasite.