Peristedion picturatum McCulloch, 1926 (family Peristediidae) was distinguished from P. liorhynchus (Gunther, 1872) by a single character, the presence of two bony plates between the anus and first anal ray (vs. three in P. liorhynchus). Our examination of the holotype of P. liorhynchus revealed that it also actually has just two bony plates there, not three. Based on a comparison of the holotype and other material of P. picturatum with the holotype of P. liorhynchus, we conclude that P. picturatum is a junior synonym of P. liorhynchus.
Prior to this study, two species of ophiuroid had been described from hydrothermal vent sites, and another from methane cold seeps, all from the Atlantic Ocean. Although ophiuroids have occasionally been reported from vents in the Pacific Ocean as well, none has been described before. This study presents two new species, Spinophiura jolliveti gen. et sp. nov., family Ophiuridae, and Ophiolamina eprae gen. et sp. nov., family Ophiacanthidae, which are most likely endemic to reducing environments in the East Pacific. We also include detailed descriptions of the post-metamorphic development of these species. Spinophiura jolliveti is characterized by up to five rather long, semi-erect arm spines and a relatively small oral shield. Its postlarva is unusual in lacking a buccal scale and in that the tooth forms later in development than in all other species the postlarvae of which have been examined. The most characteristic features of O. eprae are the attitude of the three proximal laminar mouth papillae, standing almost vertically on the oral plate, and the presence of two oval, scale-like, distal papillae. Additional migrant (non-vent-endemic) species found at Pacific vent sites are tabularized, but not identified below genus level due to the poor taxonomic state of the Pacific ophiuroid fauna. Biogeographic and ecological issues are discussed.
Two new loxosomatids, Loxomitra ryukyuensis sp. nov. and Loxosomella parvipes sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island and Sesoko Island, respectively, in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Both species were found on glass slides that had been immersed, respectively, in a fishery port or an aquarium at a marine station, which indicates that both are non-commensal species. Some individuals of L. ryukyuensis found in August were brooding embryos and larvae. Larval morphology is described for the first time in the genus Loxomitra.
The parasitic wasp genus Alophomorphella Girault, 1913 is reviewed based mainly on specimens collected in Indonesia, and three new species, A. boneia Ubaidillah, sp. nov., A. marosia Ubaidillah, sp. nov., and A. infaceta Ubaidillah, sp. nov., are described. These species represent the first records of the genus from Indonesia.
The phylogeny of Indo-Australian Glyphodes (15 species), Talanga (three species), Agrioglypta (four species), and two outgroup species, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner, 1825 and Metallarcha aureodiscalis (Hampson, 1918), was inferred from nucleotide sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI (686bp) and COII (687bp) genes and the nuclear EF-1α (973bp) gene. While the third codon positions in COI and EF-1α were not saturated with substitutions, those in COII were saturated when sequences were compared between genera. MP analyses based on pooled data of COI, COII, and EF-1α resulted in two MP trees. The strict consensus tree showed that Glyphodes, Talanga, and Agrioglypta were all not monophyletic. Another analysis based on pooled data of all molecular and morphological data resulted in a single tree, in which monophyly of the genus Glyphodes was barely supported (bootstrap value <50%). Glyphodes species were divided into the same three clades as in an earlier published, morphology-based tree, one of these clades (the so-called Group 3) being supported by a bootstrap value of 100%. In all analyses the genus Agrioglypta was shown to be paraphyletic, since A. eurytusalis (Walker, 1859) fell within the genus Talanga.