Gaussia princeps (Scott, 1894) (Copepoda : Calanoida : Metridinidae) is redescribed from the Indo-Pacific region on the basis of two adult females, one adult male, and the fifth copepodid stage of both sexes and compared with the holotype from the Gulf of Guinea. The specimens of G. princeps from the Indo-Pacific region showed no remarkable differences from the holotype. The morphological differences from its two congeners are also discussed. The genital compound somite of the female of G. princeps carries paired gonopores and copulatory pores located antero- and postero-ventrally, respectively, without distinct seminal receptacles ; this arrangement differs from those of other genera of the family Metridinidae. Present and previous data indicate that G. princeps is widely distributed in the mesopelagic zone of the oceans throughout the tropical to temperate regions, but there are some morphological evidences that the southeastern pacific population represents a distinct species.
Adults and juveniles of Copidognathus vulgaris sp. nov. are described. This mite, very common in the upper phytal zone of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, belongs to the pulcher group, a natural species group spread world-wide. External morphological characters of adults, protonymphs, and larvae during ontogenetic development are outlined and discussed.
Two new species of capitellid polychaetes are described from Hokkaido, northern Japan. Heteromastus tohbaiensis sp. nov. is very similar to H. filiformis (Claparede, 1864) and H. similis Southern, 1921, but differs from these species in having eye spots in mature specimens, distinct nodes on the thoracic hooded hooks, and by its small size. Barantolla orientalis sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners in having the combination of an areolated thoracic epithelium, capillary setae on both rami in setigers 1-6, a caudal cirrus on the pygidium, and in the absence of branchiae on the abdominal segments.
The female holotype specimen of Paranthrene chrysoidea Zulowsky, 1932 from Taiwan was examined. The species is assigned to the genus Nokona Matsumura, 1931, new comb., and is redescribed herein. Both male and female specimens and their genitalia are figured for the first time. The hostplant, Paederia scandens (Rubiaceae), is newly recorded.
The Bryaxis of Japan are revised, and a key to the species is provided. The species definitions are largely based on male sexual characters, but the female genital plates appear also to provide robust characters. Presently, 34 Japanese species of Bryaxis are recognized, 21 of them being described as new : B. bushido sp. n., B. heian sp. n., B. hisamatsui sp. n., B. hoko sp. n., B. iriomotensis sp. n., B. jomon sp. n., B. kamakura sp. n., B. karate sp. n., B. katana sp. n., B. kofun sp. n., B. mayumi sp. n., B. naginata sp. n., B. peckorum sp. n., B. platalea sp. n., B. samurai sp. n., B. sawadai sp. n., B. sumo sp. n., B. tanto sp. n., B. taradakensis sp. n., B. tetralobus sp. n., and B. yari sp. n. The following names are synonymized : Bythoxenites diversicornis Lobl and Kurbatov with Bt. sulcithorax Tanokuchi, Bryaxis brevipalpis Jeannel with B. japonicus (Sharp), Bryaxis kintaro Nomura and B. kintaro odaiensis Nomura with B. koltzei (Reitter). Lectotypes are designated for Bryaxis harmandi Raffray, B. sauteri Raffray, B. humilis Raffray, B. japonicus (Sharp), and B. reversus (Sharp). Bryaxis subseriatus (Weise) and B. grandicollis Jeannel are considered species inquirendae. Sexual polymorphy is discussed, and polymorphy affecting endoskeletal structures is described in male B. reversus.
Three new species of polydorids, Polydora uncinata sp. nov., Polydora aura sp. nov., and Carazziella spongilla sp. nov., are described from Japanese waters. The two species of Polydora bore into mollusc shells and coralline algae. The species of Carazziella inhabits freshwater sponges in a brackish lake.
A small collection of Pycnogonida is reported from the Vava'u Island Group of the Tonga Islands, southwest Pacific. It contains 10 species in seven genera with one species, Pycnogonum saxulum, described and illustrated as new. The distribution of all species is given and each is compared with congeners known from the southwest Pacific.
The genus Preeriella is redefined and Machadonia is newly synonymized with it. Five species of the genus are recorded from Asia, including four newly described species : P. armigera sp. n. from Japan, P. bournieri sp. n. from Thailand, P. formosana sp. n. from Taiwan, and P. malaya sp. n. from West Malaysia. A key to the five Asian species is given. Adults of these species are usually less than 1mm long and live in leaf-litter, but it is not known if they are predatory or fungus-feeding. One species, P. armigera, has the hind femora of large males greatly enlarged, suggesting some form of sexual competition.