Two new species of livebearing brotula of the genus Microbrotula Gosline are described from the tropical southwestern Pacific. Microbrotula greenfieldi sp. nov., from Fiji, is distinguished from its congeners by lacking head pores, its retrograde pelvic fins, relatively high pectoral fin ray count, low vertebral count, short pectoral fin, and dorsal fin origin above the eighth vertebra. Microbrotula punicea sp. nov., from the Kermadec Islands, is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of four preoperculomandibular pores, its high vertebral and pectoral fin ray counts, advanced pelvic fins, long pectoral fin, and dorsal fin origin above the ninth vertebra.
Three specimens (146.9-190.2 mm standard length) of the scopelarchid Scopelarchoides kreffti Johnson, 1972, previously known only from the type series from the South Atlantic, are documented from off Tasmania, Australia (600-820 m depth). The smallest specimen represents the southernmost record (44°16'S) of the species. This range extension of approximately 10,000 km indicates that S. kreffti is widely distributed along the Subtropical Convergence. A photograph and the first description of the coloration of S. kreffti are presented.
Pelagic juveniles of two morids, Antimora microlepis Bean, 1890 and Physiculus japonicus Hilgendorf, 1879, were collected by midwater trawl (0-20 m depth) from transition waters between the Oyashio and Kuroshio fronts of the western North Pacific in May, 1989. Juveniles of A. microlepis (13 specimens, 30.2-54.3 mm standard length, SL) characteristically have an elongated body, posteriorly positioned anus, 24-25 precaudal vertebrae, chin with a barbel, no ventral luminous organ, elongated pelvic fin rays, and a non-protruding snout. Juveniles of P. japonicus (six specimens, 20.4-39.0 mm SL) characteristically have an elongated body, chin with a barbel, ventral luminous organ anterior to the anus, elongated pelvic fin rays, a pointed caudal fin, 9-10 dorsal fin rays, 66-70 second dorsal fin rays, 68-72 anal fin rays, six pelvic fin rays, 16+41-42 vertebrae, and ca. 130 longitudinal scales.
A new hermit crab species of the family Paguridae, Pylopaguropsis bellula, is described and illustrated from Kume Island in the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. This new species is most similar to P. vicina Komai and Osawa, 2004 in morphology, and to P. furusei Asakura, 2000 in coloration. It is distinguished from these two species by setation or length of the dactyli of the ambulatory pereopods, and coloration of the ocular peduncles. Supplemental notes are provided for two poorly known species of the Paguridae, Anapagrides reesei (McLaughlin, 1986) and Catapaguroides iejimensis Osawa and Takeda, 2004.
The morphologies of two nominal species of earthworm, Amynthas acinctus (Goto and Hatai, 1898) and Metaphire yezoensis (Kobayashi, 1938), were studied and compared. We found copulatory pouches behind the male pores of A. acinctus and thus conclude that this species should be transferred to the genus Metaphire. The intraspecific variability of specimens from Nagano Prefecture in central Japan, which closely agree with the original description of M. yezoensis, has been assessed. Our observation strongly suggests that M. yezoensis and Metaphire acincta comb. nov. are conspecific, and thus the latter is considered to be a senior synonym of the former.
A new interstitial hoplonemertean, Ototyphlonemertes dolichobasis sp. nov., is described from Otsuchi Bay, Iwate Prefecture, on the Pacific coast of northern Honshu Island, Japan. The new species can be distinguished from all its congeners by its extremely long central stylet basis, 286 μm on average, which is more than three times the known maximum length in the genus. The shape of the central stylet, which is streamlined with two gently intertwined strands, is also distinctive.