A new species of the sentinel crab genus Macrophthalmus is described from Iriomote Island, southwestern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Macrophthalmus ryukyuanus sp. nov. is referred to the M. telescopicus species group, within which it is morphologically most similar to M. milloti Crosnier, 1965. The forms of the eye, male chela, and fourth ambulatory leg clearly distinguish the new species from the latter. The new species is also compared to M. microfylacas Nagai, Watanabe and Naruse, 2006 and M. latipes Borradaile, 1903. A key to the Japanese species of the M. telescopicus group is provided.
Coffmania insignis sp. nov. is described on the basis of male and female adults, pupae, and larvae. This new species most closely resembles Coffmania animispina Hazra and Chaudhuri, 2000, but differs from it in having subapically banded femora and flattened L-setae on pupal abdominal segments II-VI. This is the first report of the genus Coffmania from the Palaearctic Region.
This paper is based on 58 specimens of Agromyzidae collected by staff of the Bishop Museum, Honolulu, in the Alishan Mountains (alt. 1,800-2,400 m) of Taiwan. Eighteen species are represented. Five of these are described as new to science: Cerodontha (Icteromyza) alishana sp. nov., Liriomyza maai sp. nov., L. strumosa sp. nov., Phytomyza pseudoangelicae sp. nov., and P. quadrispinosa sp. nov. Seven species in six genera, including two uncommon species in Europe, Phytoliriomyza alpicola (Strobl, 1898) and Phytomyza salviae (Hering, 1924), are recorded as new to the Taiwanese fauna of this family, bringing the total number now to 107 species.
A new genus, Anacanthobythites, is proposed for two previously unknown species of live-bearing brotulas collected in temperate Australia. The first, A. platycephalus sp. nov., is based on a single male taken in Lucky Bay, Western Australia. The second, A. tasmaniensis sp. nov., is based on two males taken off Port Davey, Tasmania. The new genus is characterized mainly by a depressed head; seven branchiostegal rays; the first branchial arch without developed gill rakers; the anteriormost anal fin ray located below dorsal rays 19-22; and the absence of palatine teeth, an opercular pore, and a pseudobranch. In most respects, both members of the new genus resemble species of Grammonus Gill, 1896 or Microbrotula Gosline, 1953.
In the original description, the interstitial ostracod genus Microloxoconcha Hartmann, 1954 was diagnosed by the morphology of its carapace and the number of segments in the antennula, antenna, and mandibula; these characters, however, are frequently shared with other taxa. The genus is therefore redescribed with special emphasis on the hinge morphology, antennula form, and large seventh limb. Furthermore, two new species of this genus are described: M. schornikovi sp. nov. from sandy beaches of the Miura Peninsula, central Japan, and M. kikaijimaensis sp. nov. from Kikaijima Island, Amami Islands, southern Japan. New descriptive terminology is proposed for structural details of the male copulatory organ of Microloxoconcha.
A monotypic new genus, Heterokamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Kamakidae), is erected for its type species H. isahayae sp. nov. from Isahaya Bay, western Japan. Heterokamaka closely resembles Kamaka Dershavin, 1923 in having a dilated coxa 1, coalesced urosomites 1 and 2, and a uniramous uropod 3; however, it can be distinguished readily by the acute-tipped, short ocular lobes. Because H. isahayae occurs only in Isahaya Bay, which has become eutrophic, this new species is probably facing a high risk of extinction.
Eotetranychus tiliaecola Ehara and Gotoh, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Tilia maximowicziana Shirasawa (Tiliaceae). It was also found to occur on T. japonica (Miq.) Simonkai in Hokkaido, Japan. The aedeagus of this species closely resembles that of E. tsugaruensis Ehara, 1989, but differs in having the distal part strongly sigmoid and its termination more slender, and in the widely concave dorsal margin of the shaft.