The infraorbitals of representatives of all Lake Tanganyikan cichlid genera were examined in order to establish a basic morphological data base. About half of the genera examined displayed infraorbitals of type A, the most plesiomorphic arrangement among African cichlids. The remaining taxa were divided among seven types of infraorbital pattern. Types B and C were found in all examined members of the tribes Ectodini and Trematocarini, respectively, and thus appear to be synapomorphies supporting each tribe's monophyly. Type D was found in all of the species of Lamprologini examined except Neolamprologus toae (Poll, 1949), which has the type E condition as an autapomorphy, and Variabilichromis moorii (Boulenger, 1898), which appears to have retained the primitive type A, indicating that this species is better placed in a basal position in the tribe. The phylogenetic implications of types F, G, and H remain unresolved.
Six specimens of the pinguipedid fish Parapercis xanthozona (Bleeker, 1849) were collected from Amami-Oshima Island of the Ryukyu Islands in 1991 and 1994. This represents the first reliable record of the species from Japan. It is concluded that Percis pleurostigma Sauvage, 1891, which had been considered conspecific with P. xanthozona, is a junior synonym of Parapercis punctulata (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829). We concur with synonymizing Parapercis dorsonebulosa Martin and Montalban, 1935 with P. xanthozona ; this synonymy has been overlooked since 1951.
Two new dendrothripine Thripidae are described and illustrated from Japan. Petrothrips nigriceps gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Izu Peninsula, and Dendrothrips amamiensis sp. nov. from Amami I. in the Ryukyu Islands. The genus Petrothrips is closely related to Edissa Faure, 1953 and Asprothrips Crawford, 1938. Dendrothrips amamiensis is closely related to D. sexmaculatus Bagnall, 1916.
Three species of the genus Neopodocinum (Macrochelidae) were recorded from the body surface of dung beetles in West Java, Indonesia. One species was identified as N. spinirostris (Berlese, 1910) and the other two are described here as new to science. Neopodocinum halimunensis sp. nov. is distinguishable from congeners by an expanded anal shield with two pairs of preanal setae in both sexes. Neopodocinum subjaspersi sp. nov. differs from the related species N. jaspersi (Oudemans, 1900) in the pectination of some dorsal and opisthogastric setae.
Centropages brevifurcus Shen and Lee, 1963, known exclusively from Chinese estuaries and the Java Sea, is redescribed from the Gulf of Thailand. This is the first record of its occurrence in Thailand. The species belongs to the newly characterized C. trispinosus Sewell, 1914 group, which is restricted to the tropical Indo-Malayan region.
Three species of brackish-water ostracods, Dolerocypria mukaishimensis Okubo, 1980, Paracypria inujimensis (Okubo, 1980), and Ishizakiella supralittoralis (Schornikov, 1974), were collected from the same locality at Ushimado, Okayama Prefecture. The male of the candonid P. inujimensis is figured for the first time and described. This is only the second record of this species. Additionally, this report of Ishizakiella supralittoralis is the first of the species and genus from the Inland Sea of Japan ; I. supralittoralis is widespread around Japan and its distribution considerably overlaps that of I. miurensis (Hanai, 1957). Previously, both species of Ishizakiella were presumed to have similar habitat requirements, but the distribution of I. supralittoralis and its coexisting species suggests that it has different habitat requirements than I. miurensis does.
The small, deep-water sea anemone Oceanactis diomedeae (McMurrich, 1893) is recorded for the first time since it was first described, living in muddy habitats of the Sea of Okhotsk. The genus Oceanactis Moseley, 1877 is considered synonymous with Oractis McMurrich, 1893 and is the only genus belonging to the family Oractiidae Riemann-Zurneck, 2000. The invaginations of the oral disc or "glandular sacs", unique to the Oractiidae, are described and their possible function is discussed.