Recent advances in human gene analysis promoted by the human genome project have brought us a massive amount of information. These data can be seen and analyzed by personal computer through individual Web sites. As a result, the best use of bioinformatic is essential for recent molecular biology research. Genetic polymorphism of drug-metabolizing enzymes influences individual drug efficacy and safety through the alteration of pharmacokinetics and disposition of drugs. Considerable amounts of data have now accumulated as allelic differences of various drug metabolizing enzymes. Current understanding of genotype information on cytochrome P450 is hereby summarized, based on the Web site for their use in individual optimization of drug therapy.
Recently, we developed a method for assessing in vivo drug metabolism capacity by pharmacokinetic estimation of the quantity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in vivo (PKCYP-test), in which an apparent liver-to-blood free concentration gradient in vivo (qg) is introduced. The qg value can be alternatively defined as the ratio of the in vivo-in vitro clearance by a single CYP isoform. In this study, we examined the application of the PKCYP-test to drugs metabolized by multiple CYP isoforms in a rat model with fluctuating CYP1A2 levels using theophylline as a model drug. In control rats, the estimated qg values for each CYP1A2 and CYP3A2 based on the in vivo hepatic intrinsic clearance, in vitro Michaelis constant (Km) and maximal rate of metabolism (Vmax) values for liver slices agreed well. Moreover, the qg value for CYP1A2 determined by the Km and Vmax values for recombinant CYP1A2 was compatible with that based on liver slices. These qg values also agreed with that of rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene. The time-course of theophylline concentrations in serum simulated by a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model incorporating the hepatic clearance determined by the PKCYP-test agreed with the observed values. These results demonstrate that the qg value in the PKCYP-test is applicable to drugs metabolized by multiple CYP isoforms.
The participation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoforms in the metabolism of selegiline was investigated. Experiments using recombinant CYP isoforms expressed in human lymphoblastoid cells showed CYP2B6 to be the major CYP isoform involved with the metabolism of selegiline. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 also contributed to the metabolism of selegiline but their catalytic activities were much less than that of CYP2B6. CYP2B6 had a higher affinity for both N-depropagylation (Km=21.4 μM) and N-demethylation (Km=25.2 μM) of selegiline than CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. In immunoinhibition studies using mixed human hepatic microsomes, selegiline N-depropagylation activity was most strongly inhibited by anti-CYP2B and anti-CYP3A antibodies, while selegiline N-demethylation activity was most inhibited by anti-CYP2B antibody. In CYP2B6-rich human hepatic microsomes, anti-CYP2B antibody had the strongest inhibitory effects on both activities. Selegiline inhibited CYP2B6-mediated (S)-mephenytoin N-demethylation activity and CYP2C19-mediated (S)-mephenytoin 4′-hydroxylation activity. These findings suggest that attention should be paid to the drug-drug interaction associated with CYP2B6 and CYP2C19. In conclusion, CYP2B6 participates in the metabolism of selegiline but the degree of its contribution varies with the level of its expression in human liver.
To clarify the mutation of the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 3 gene causing fish-odor syndrome, we analyzed the FMO3 gene of a Thai subject who possibly suffered from fish-odor syndrome. A novel mutation, a single-base substitution from G to A at the position of 265 (G265A), was identified in exon 3. The mutation caused an amino acid substitution from valine to isoleucine at residue 58 (V58I). The mutated FMO3 protein with V58I exhibited the reduced trimethylamine N-oxidase activity when it was expressed in E. coli. The Vmax/Km value for the activity of the mutant-type FMO3 was about 5 times lower than that for the wild-type FMO3.
The pharmacokinetics and pharamacodynamics of M17055, a novel diuretic were studied after a single intravenous administration to rats and dogs, the two species used in the pharmacological and toxicological studies. No gender dependent response to systemic exposure was observed at the high dose level in rats, in agreement with the determined LD50. A gender difference in urinary excretion of M17055, however, was clearly observed in rats. The slower elimination and the lower total body clearance (CLtot) values of M17055 in dogs reflect the difference of the no-effect level (NOEL) between rats (0.1 mg/kg) and dogs (0.03 mg/kg) well. The diuretic response was well correlated with the urinary M17055 excretion rate by fitting to a sigmoid Emax model in both rats and dogs. The derived ER50 value of M17055 in dogs was approximately 10 times less than that reported for furosemide, suggesting that the intrinsic potency of M17055 is equal to or higher than those of other powerful loop diuretics. Although diuretic sensitivity was considered to be lower in dogs than in rats, the higher amount of M17055 reaching the dog kidney is likely to compensate for this. The diuretic response in female rats was predictable by using the pharmacodynamic parameters derived from male rats. These results show that the apparent high diuretic potency and the other pivotal observations for M17055 found in the pharmacological and toxicological studies can be rationalized by the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the unchanged compound.
It is known that in humans taking soy food, the phytoestrogens, daidzein (DZ) and genistein (GS), exist as sulfates and glucuronides in the plasma and are excreted as conjugates in urine. To investigate which human sulfotransferase (SULT) isoforms participate in the sulfation of these phytoestrogens, the four major cytosolic SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1E1, and SULT2A1, occurring in the human liver were bacterially expressed as His-tagged proteins and chromatographically purified to homogeneity in the presence of Tween 20 and glycerol as highly efficient agents for stabilizing the recombinant enzymes. All the SULTs showed sulfating activity toward both DZ and GS. However, kcat/Km values observed indicated that these phytoestrogens were sulfated predominantly by SULT1A1 and SULT1E1 with Km values of 0.3 and 0.7 μM for GS and 1.9 and 3.4 μM for DZ, respectively. DZ and GS strongly inhibited the sulfation of the endogenous substrate, β-estradiol, by SULT1E1 in a non-competitive manner with Ki values of 14 and 7 μM, respectively, suggesting that these phytoestrogens might affect tissue levels of β-estradiol in the human. The phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA), 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), and 4-t-octylphenol (t-OP), were used as substrates to investigate the possible participation of human SULTs in their metabolism for excretion. High kcat/Km values were observed for the sulfation of BPA by SULT1A1, NP by SULT1A1 and SULT1E1, and t-OP by SULT1E1 and SULT2A1.
The Cinnamomi Cortex and Ephedra Herba were found to more strongly inhibit aminopyrine N-demethylation in rat liver microsomes compared to other constituents included in Sho-seiryu-to. The component inhibiting drug oxidations catalyzed by CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 was isolated from Cinnamomi Cortex, and was identified as o-methoxycinnamaldehyde (OMCA). When phenacetin and 4-nitrophenol were used as probe substrates for CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, respectively, the OMCA was shown to be a competitive inhibitor against CYP1A2 while it was a mixed type inhibitor against CYP2E1. The inhibitory effect of OMCA on 4-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylation (Ki=6.3 μM) was somewhat potent compared to that observed on phenacetin O-deethylation (Ki=13.7 μM) in rat liver microsomes.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of three fluoroquinolones (pazufloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin) and a β-lactam, ceftazidime in the tissue interstitial and intracellular spaces after a single intravenous administration to rats based on muscle microdialysis. The unbound concentration in the tissue interstitial fluid (Cisf,u) after administration was estimated from the concentration in the dialysate by muscle microdialysis, the in vitro permeability rate constant, and the previously reported effective dialysis coefficient. The Cisf,us of pazufloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and ceftazidime in the muscle were close to their unbound concentrations in the venous plasma. These results were consistent with ones previously obtained at steady state. Based on these results, the total concentration in the tissue interstitial fluid (Cisf) was calculated from the ratio of plasma protein binding, the plasma concentration, and previously reported interstitial-to-plasma albumin ratio in muscle of rats. The calculated Cisf was compared with the muscle concentration (Cm) obtained using the homogenized tissue. The Cisf of ceftazidime was higher than the Cm. The Cisf of pazufloxacin was found to be almost equal to its Cm. The Cisfs of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were lower than their Cms with the exception of the values at 5 min after administration. These results indicate that ceftazidime is mainly distributed in the interstitial space of the muscle, that pazufloxacin is distributed equally in both the interstitial space and the tissue cells, and that ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are mainly distributed in the tissue cells rather than the interstitial space.
The effect of hydrophobic extracts of human and rat urine on in-vitro P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function was examined, in terms of intra-, inter-individual variations, and physiological states. Six urine samples out of 7, obtained from one male subject on different days, suppressed P-gp function with different potencies. Similarly, 11 samples out of 15 different individuals (8 males and 7 females) inhibited P-gp function. Among them, urine from one female, obtained 1 month after delivery, showed a potent inhibitory effect. Another urine from a pregnant female, obtained 1 week before delivery, showed further potent inhibition on P-gp function. In addition, urine from normal rats strongly inhibited P-gp function at much lower concentrations than human urine, and the inhibitory potencies varied in diseased states; control (without urine extract)=experimental acute renal failure<experimental acute hepatic failure<normal rat urine. When human urine extract was separated by a two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, several spot fractions inhibited P-gp function, and equilin was identified in one fraction as an endogenous P-gp inhibitor. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that urine contains many endogenous P-gp inhibitors, and their inhibitory potencies on P-gp function vary with intra- and inter-individual variations, and under different physiological states.