CYP2D1, 2D2, 2D3, and 2D4 are major CYP2D isoforms expressed in the rat. In humans, only CYP2D6 is expressed. In rat brain, the mRNA for CYP2D4 is most abundant in cerebellum, striatum, pons and medulla oblongata. In human brain, CYP2D6 mRNA expression was detected in all regions with highest levels observed in cerebellum. CYP2D isoforms are involved in the metabolism of not only xenobiotics such as antidepressants, β-adrenergic blockers, antiarrhysthmics, and antihypertensives, but also endogenous compounds such as trace amine and neurosteroids. Among 11 isoforms of human recombinant P450s, only CYP2D6 exhibited an ability to efficiently convert tyramine which exists in the brain, to dopamine. CYP2D4 and CYP2D6 which are the predominant CYP2D isoforms in the rat and human brain, respectively, possess 21-hydroxylation activity for both progesterone and allopregnanolone. CYP2D4, not P450c21, works as a steroid 21-hydroxylase in the brain. These results suggested that CYP2D in the brain may be involved in the metabolism of neuronal amines and steroids and in the regulation of the central nervous system.
The hypocalcemic effect of salmon calcitonin (sCT) after intravenous administration was explained on the basis of an integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model with the endogenous Ca regulatory system in the rat. The pharmacokinetics of sCT described by a conventional two-compartment model showed the extremely rapid elimination of sCT from plasma (MRT; 6.86 min). The hypocalcemic effect of sCT reached a peak from 0.5 to 1.5 hrs after administration, and the peak time tended to prolong with increasing doses. This delay in pharmacological effect of sCT against plasma cencentration may be a result of a summation of multiple actions of the endogenous Ca regulatory system including feedback control. The plasma Ca regulation system in the rat was investigated by i.v. bolus administration of calcium gluconate and/or endogenous (rat) calcitonin (rCT). Since non-linearity in the relationship between Ca and rCT concentrations in plasma was observed, we assumed that rCT was secreted in accordance with the plasma Ca level via an exponential function. The pharmacokinetics of rCT was represented as a linear one-compartment model. To link the rCT level with plasma Ca level, an additional effect compartment was required to explain the delay in onset and decline of the pharmacological effect. This Ca regulation model explained the observed Ca and rCT profiles in plasma after administration of Ca and/or rCT. The plasma Ca levels after administration of sCT could be well described by the present integrated model. This suggested the potential for prediction of plasma sCT concentration only from the hypocalcemic effect after extravascular administration of sCT, using this PK-PD model.
Assessment of the extent of bioavailability (EBA) of salmon calcitonin (sCT) from hypocalcemic effects after intranasal administration was presented in rats. An integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model with the endogenous Ca regulation system was applied. The influence of camostat mesilate, a protease inhibitor, on absorption of sCT was also estimated. Camostat, coadministered intravascularly, delayed the elimination of sCT. Although the hypocalcemic effect of sCT after i.v. administration was accelerated when camostat was coadministered intravenously, the enhanced effect could not be expressed only by pharmacokinetic change of sCT, and then the pharmacological data in the presence of camostat were analyzed to obtain optimal PD parameters. For the absorption of sCT after i.n. administration, a saturable absorptive process and a zero-order kinetic clearance from the nasal cavity were introduced to the model. The regression curves fitted the observed data, and camostat caused both an increase in maximum absorption rate and a decrease in the clearance parameter compared with the control. According to this modified PK-PD relationship, plasma sCT concentrations following i.n. administration of sCT with camostat were predicted well using its pharmacological effects. The EBA of sCT calculated from the simulated concentrations increased more than 4-folds compared with the control study. These results indicate the potential for prediction of plasma sCT concentration from the hypocalcemic effect.
It is suggested that the bioavailability of CYP3A4 substrates might be low due to first-pass metabolism in the small intestine, and it is possible that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may influence first-pass metabolism in a co-operative manner. We have collected information of the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 substrates to evaluate the fraction absorbed (Fa), intestinal availability (Fg) and hepatic availability (Fh) and have investigated the intestinal first-pass metabolism and the effect of P-gp on this. The pharmacokinetic data involved ten compounds metabolized by CYP3A4 in humans, with and without an inhibitor or inducer. FaFg, which is the product of Fa and Fg, and Fh were calculated using three liver blood flow rates (17.1, 21.4, 25.5 mL/min/kg) in consideration of variations in the liver flow rate. Co-administration with an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and treatment of an inducer of CYP3A4 caused an increase and decrease in the FaFg of CYP3A4 substrates, regardless of the liver blood flow, indicating that CYP3A4 substrates exhibit a first-pass effect in their metabolism. This holds true regardless of whether the compounds are P-gp substrates or not. No relationship was observed between FaFg and Fh, regardless of the hepatic blood flow rate and the P-gp substrates. The FaFg of both P-gp and non P-gp substrates decreased as the hepatic intrinsic clearance increased. FaFg was markedly reduced when the hepatic intrinsic clearance was more than 100 mL/min/kg. This in vivo intrinsic clearance corresponds to an in vitro intrinsic clearance of 78 μL/min/mg human hepatic microsomal protein, equivalent to a half-life of 8.9 min for the substrate in a commonly used metabolic stability test with human microsomes (1 mgMs protein/mL). This phenomenon was not observed in substrates of CYP isoforms other than CYP3A4. In conclusion, it is suggested that CYP3A4 substrates which have a hepatic intrinsic clearance of 100 mL/min/kg exhibit a low bioavailability due to intestinal first-pass metabolism, regardless of whether they are substrates of P-gp or not.
RS-7897, a novel organic nitrate, structurally contains aminoethylnitrate (AEN) and L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (L-OTCA), which are linked together via an amide bond. Vasodilating activity of RS-7897 was 130 times weaker than that of AEN in vitro, while in vivo it was comparable to but longer lasting than those of AEN and nitroglycerin in anesthetized dogs. Intravenous administration of RS-7897 to dogs resulted in the appearance in plasma of AEN, which decreased with about 2.5 times longer t1/2 (0.49 h) than that after administration of AEN itself. The Tmax value of AEN (0.25 h) after RS-7897 dosing agreed with the time showing the maximum vasodilating effect, indicating that RS-7897 serves as a prodrug releasing AEN slowly in vivo. The activity to hydrolyze RS-7897 to AEN and L-OTCA was localized in the cytosolic fractions of dog tissues, inhibited by thiol-blocking agents and was strongly inhibited by thyrotropin-releasing hormone, a substrate of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase I (PAP-I). Furthermore, the RS-7897-hydrolyzing activity in dog liver cytosol was completely inhibited by an antibody against rat PAP-I. Therefore, it was found that PAP-I is involved in bioactivation of RS-7897 by amide bond hydrolysis, recognizing the sulfur-substituted L-pyroglutamyl moiety (L-OTCA) of this xenobiotic substrate.
Prulifloxacin is a prodrug-type new quinolone. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of biliary excretion and brain distribution of its active metabolite, UFX. UFX was efficiently excreted into the bile in rats, with its concentration in the bile being 30-60 times higher than that in plasma. The in vivo disposition study revealed that multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) was involved in the biliary excretion of glucuronide metabolite, but not of the unchanged UFX. A transport study using a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing cell line, LLC-GA5-COL150, showed that UFX was a substrate of P-gp. Nevertheless, the biliary clearance (CLbile) of UFX in P-gp-gene-deficient mice was not different from that in the normal mice, although the concentration in the liver was slightly higher than that in the normal mice. These observations suggest that multiple transport systems are involved in the biliary excretion of UFX, with minor contribution of P-gp. The distribution of UFX in the rat brain was quite low, and its tissue to plasma concentration ratio (Kp) in the brain was much less than the unity and was increased by cyclosporin A. The Kp in the brain of mdr1a/1b(−/−) mice was higher than that in the normal mice, suggesting that efflux by P-gp played a major role in the limited brain distribution of UFX.
New SRM (selected reaction monitoring) data dependent exclusion (MS)n measurement makes it possible to obtain MS3 fragmentation data for all MS2 fragments, useful for structural determination of drug metabolites using ESI ion trap. MS2 fragments are produced by cleavage of all protonated molecules at the lone electron pairs of heteroatoms or the π electrons of double and triple bonds, benzene rings and hetero-rings of drugs. Usually, data dependent MS3 measurement cleaves only MS2 fragment of highest intensity, that normally does not contain important metabolic sites. Fragmentation data from all parts of drug metabolites is required to determine structure. In addition to the usual basic measurement of protonated molecules and (MS)n fragmentation of drug metabolites, we demonstrate the use of SRM data dependent (MS)n measurement, plus new SRM data dependent exclusion (MS)n measurement for structural determination of metabolites.
We have shown previously that the flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 4000 (FD-4) is transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers in a polarized fashion favoring the basal to apical direction under normal conditions (i.e., isotonic solution in basal side). Furthermore, FD-4 transport may occur via a process that included a certain degree of substrate specificity for polysaccharide and transcytosis. In the present study, we compared the flux of FD-4 in the basal to apical direction (efflux) and the apical to basal direction (influx) in stress conditions (i.e., hyperosmolarity in basal side) to those in normal conditions (i.e., iso-osmolarity in basal side). The efflux of FD-4 was increased by hyperosmolarity in basal side, but the influx was decreased when compared with normal conditions. Neither dextran 10, 000 nor colchicine inhibited the efflux of FD-4 in hyperosmolarity conditions. The inhibition of efflux of FD-4 was observed not by S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine but by sodium nitroprusside and sodium ferrocyanide. These results collectively suggest that hyperosmolarity in basal side accelerates the efflux of FD-4 across the transcellular route but not across the paracellular route in Caco-2 cell monolayers. And it is indicated that cyanide rather than nitric oxide is involved in dysfunction of the FD-4 efflux system irrespective of conditions such as normal osmolarity or hyperosmolarity.
We have evaluated the functional consequences of genetic variations in human organic cation transporter hOCT1 (SLC22A1). Three coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) resulted in the amino acid changes Pro283Leu, Arg287Gly and Pro341Leu were assessed. Uptake experiments with transient expression system using HEK293 cells revealed that the variants Pro283Leu and Arg287Gly had completely diminished transport activity. The other variant Pro341Leu had a significantly, but not completely, decreased transport activity. Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of all three variant proteins in the crude membranes of HEK293 cells were comparable to those of wild type hOCT1. Moreover, the expression of variant proteins at the plasma membrane was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence, indicating that these SNPs did not affect the membrane localization of hOCT1. Present results suggest that the amino acid residues Pro283 and Arg287 have a substantial role in substrate recognition of hOCT1.