The aim of this study was to develop new dipyridamole (DP) salts with pH-independent solubility for improving oral bioavailability under hypochlorhydria. Salt screening was carried out using nine counterions by the temperature gradient method. Six DP salts were obtained, and there was marked improvement in dissolution behavior for all DP salts in a neutral medium. Most DP salts were stable under accelerated conditions. On the basis of the dissolution and stability data, DP tosylate (DP/TS) was selected as a promising DP salt. The pharmacokinetics of DP and the promising DP salt were assessed in normal rats and omeprazole-treated rats as a hypochlorhydric model. After oral administration of DP/TS (10 mg-DP/kg) in normal rats, enhanced DP exposures with increased Cmax and AUC0–3 were observed compared with those with DP by ca. 2.8- and 1.7-fold, respectively. There was ca. 1 h delay of Tmax and ca. 62% reduction of AUC0–3 for DP in omeprazole-treated rats compared with those for DP in normal rats; however, oral absorption for DP/TS under hypochlorhydria was almost identical to that in normal rats. The newly developed DP/TS might provide better therapeutic efficacy in clinical use for hypochlorhydric patients.
Efavirenz is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6). This study aimed to examine the frequencies of CYP2B6 and the association between CYP2B6 polymorphisms and plasma efavirenz concentrations in an HIV-1 infected Thai population. Mid-dose plasma efavirenz concentration was determined at 12 weeks following the initiation of an antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir, lamivudine and efavirenz) in 100 Thai adults with HIV-1 infection using high-performance liquid chromatography. Candidate CYP2B6 polymorphisms (c.64C>T, c.499C>G, c.516G>T, c.785A>G, c.1375A>G, c.1459C>T) were conducted by real-time PCR-based allelic discrimination. The most frequent polymorphisms among this cohort were the CYP2B6 c.785A>G and c.516G>T, which had a frequency of 0.36 and 0.32, respectively. From the cases observed, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (c.516G>T and c.785A>G) were significantly associated with high efavirenz plasma levels (p < 0.05). The most frequent haplotypic combinations were *1/*6, *1/*1, *1/*2 and *6/*6 at a frequency of 42.0%, 32.0%, 8.0% and 7.0%, respectively. Increased plasma concentrations of efavirenz were present in individuals with CYP2B6 *6/*6 [7.210 mg/L; interquartile range (IQR), 5.020–9.260] when compared to those with CYP2B6*1/*1 (1.570 mg/L; IQR, 1.295–2.670), p < 0.001. In our study, the impact of SNPs which are correlated with a high level of efavirenz plasma concentrations was found. The genetic configuration of SNPs which are associated with high plasma efavirenz levels may be useful in optimizing the efavirenz dose that is used in HIV-1 infected patients.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the CYP3A5*3 allele on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and amlodipine, and drug-drug interactions between them in healthy subjects. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between tacrolimus and amlodipine were evaluated in a randomized, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy Chinese volunteers according to CYP3A5 genotype. A single-dose and multiple-dose study were designed. A 96-h pharmacokinetic study followed either tacrolimus or amlodipine dose, and the washout periods between the study phases were 14 days. In the single-dose study, apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of tacrolimus (5 mg) in CYP3A5 expressers was 3.8-fold (p = 0.008) higher than that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Amlodipine decreased mean tacrolimus CL/F in CYP3A5 expressers by 2.2-fold (p = 0.005), while it had no effect on that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CL/F of amlodipine in CYP3A5 non-expressers was 2.0-fold (p = 0.001) higher than that in CYP3A5 expressers. Tacrolimus increased mean amlodipine CL/F in CYP3A5 expressers by 1.4-fold (p = 0.016) while it had no effect on that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Tacrolimus slightly reduced the AUC0–∞ of amlodipine in both CYP3A5 expressers and non-expressers. Dose adjustment of tacrolimus should be considered according to CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism when tacrolimus is coadministered with amlodipine.
Ribavirin (RBV), a guanosine analog for treatment of hepatitis C, is a substrate of a nucleoside transporter, solute carrier family 29 member 1 (SLC29A1). To clarify the impact of SLC29A1 on the pharmacokinetics of RBV, an open-label, crossover study of single-dose RBV (200 mg, p.o.) with and without coadministration of dipyridamole (DP), an inhibitor of SLC29A1, was performed. Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of RBV in the control phase and DP phase (25 mg, 3 times daily for 4 days) were compared in 10 healthy volunteers. SLC29A1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also determined. In the DP phase, area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) of RBV in plasma and erythrocytes showed reductions of 23% and 17%, respectively (p < 0.05), with increases in apparent oral clearance of 18% and 25%, respectively (p < 0.05). The reduction rate of the AUC of erythrocyte RBV in the DP phase was associated with SLC29A1 mRNA expression: higher mRNA expression showed greater AUC reduction. The elimination half-life of both plasma and erythrocyte RBV did not differ between the 2 phases. These results suggest that RBV/DP coadministration reduces the concentration of RBV in blood by inhibiting an important role of SLC29A1 in gastrointestinal absorption of RBV.
Inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is the major cause of drug-drug interactions (DDI). We have previously reported that the genetic variation of CYP3A4 significantly affected the inhibitory profiles of typical competitive inhibitors. In addition to competitive inhibition, some clinically significant DDI are attributable to mechanism-based inhibition (MBI). However, the differences in the MBI kinetics among CYP3A4 genetic variants remain to be characterized. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the inhibition kinetics of MBI inhibitors, erythromycin and clarithromycin, on the CYP3A4 variants CYP3A4.1, 4.2, 4.7, 4.16, and 4.18. The activity of CYP3A4 was assessed using testosterone 6β-hydroxylation with recombinant CYP3A4. Both erythromycin and clarithromycin decreased the activity of CYP3A4 in a time-dependent manner. The maximum inactivation rate constants, kinact,max, of erythromycin for CYP3A4.2 and CYP3A4.7 were 0.5-fold that for CYP3A4.1, while that for CYP3A4.16 and CYP3A4.18 were similar to that for CYP3A4.1. The KI values of erythromycin for CYP3A4.2, 4.7, 4.16, and 4.18 were 1.2-, 0.4-, 2.2- and 0.72-fold those of CYP3A4.1, respectively. Similar results were obtained for clarithromycin. In conclusion, the inhibitory profiles of MBI inhibitors, as well as competitive inhibitors, may possibly differ among CYP3A4 variants. This difference may contribute to interindividual differences in the extent of DDI based on MBI.
Laninamivir octanoate (LO) is a new neuraminidase inhibitor for inhalation. The objectives of this study were to model the population pharmacokinetics of LO and its active metabolite laninamivir after inhaled administration of LO using a pooled population of healthy subjects, and adult and pediatric patients with influenza virus infection from 8 clinical studies, and to evaluate covariate effects on pharmacokinetics. The pharmacokinetics of LO and laninamivir in plasma and urine are well-described by structural models that consist of a 2-compartment model for LO with instantaneous bolus input and first-order elimination; and a 1-compartment model for laninamivir with formation of laninamivir via the metabolic pathway from LO in systemic circulation, entry of laninamivir from the respiratory tract compartment, and linear elimination. Creatinine clearance was identified as a covariate of apparent total clearance for LO and renal clearances for LO and laninamivir, with the largest effect on laninamivir exposure. Body weight was identified to affect distribution volumes of LO and laninamivir and the metabolic clearance of LO; however there was no notable effect on exposures across the wide body weight range evaluated. The population pharmacokinetic model also provides insight into the likely kinetics of drug disposition in the respiratory tract following inhaled administration.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of complex metabolic disorder associated with various types of complications. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), the major phase II conjugation enzymes, mediate the metabolism of both drugs and endogenous metabolites that may raise great concerns in the condition of diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether diabetes could affect UGTs in the intestinal and colonic tract. A high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin was used to induce a type 2 diabetic model in rats. The mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of UGT1A1, -1A6, and -1A7 in the diabetic intestine and colon were higher than those in nondiabetic rats. In contrast, both the activity and mRNA level of UGT2B1 in diabetic rats were lower than those in nondiabetic rats. Notably, the diabetic intestine and colon exhibited an inflammatory state with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Various transcriptional factors involved in UGT regulation were unanimously upregulated in the diabetic intestine and colon. These findings strongly suggest that the regulating pathways of the UGT1 family are adaptively upregulated in the diabetic gastrointestinal tract. Given the essential regulatory role of the gastrointestinal site in drug disposition, such changes in UGTs may have a dynamic and complex impact on therapeutic drugs and endogenous metabolomes.
It is known that rare but severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), are induced by carbamazepine (CBZ). Recent studies have shown an association between HLA-A*31:01 and CBZ-induced severe cADRs in Japanese and Caucasian populations. In this study, we developed a simple method to detect the HLA-A*31:01 allele by nested allele-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Accuracy of the developed method was evaluated by direct sequencing analysis of PCR products amplified from DNA samples with known HLA-A genotypes and by consigning diagnosis of DNA samples with unknown HLA-A genotypes to a company providing clinical laboratory testing. The method developed in this study is simple, rapid, and of low cost compared to outsourcing tests and may be useful for in-house testing of the HLA-A*31:01 allele.
This case-report describes a massive voriconazole (VRZ) intoxication in a patient with a poor metabolizer profile, highlighted by low plasma main metabolite concentrations (N-oxide voriconazole), despite an extensive genetic profile for CYP2C19 and CYP2C9. The patient was treated with a therapeutic dose of VRZ but developed a neurotoxicity leading to hallucinations and coma while the plasma concentration of VRZ reached an exceptional level (20.0 µg/mL on day 10 of the treatment). Since neurological disorders diminished in parallel with the decrease of VRZ plasma concentrations, the coma was likely due to VRZ. The VRZ half-life, calculated to 58 h in this patient, was by far higher than the values reported in the literature. While VRZ concentrations slowly decreased, the N-oxide voriconazole concentrations slowly increased from day 15. Hypotheses for this lack of metabolization of VRZ are an inhibition of the metabolism by esomeprazole, a saturation of the metabolism or an enzymatic auto-inhibition of VRZ metabolism but none of these hypotheses have yet been explored. This case-report of unpredictable accumulation of VRZ in a patient without any genetic risk factor is an advocacy for systematic therapeutic drug monitoring of VRZ.
The aims of the present study were to define inter-individual differences in response to methotrexate (MTX) through MTX polyglutamate (MTX-PG) levels in red blood cells (RBC) and MTX-related gene polymorphisms. A total of 145 rheumatoid arthritis patients were recruited. MTX-PG1–5 concentrations in RBC were measured, and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms, all in MTX-related genes involved in the folate pathway, were analyzed. Disease activity was also assessed. There was no direct relationship between any MTX-PG concentration and the patient's disease condition, but detectability of MTX-PG5 was extracted as a candidate marker for response to MTX. When disease activity was compared between patients in which MTX-PG5 was detectable and undetectable, all indexes except the visual analog scale (VAS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were found to be significantly lower in the former patients. Reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) 80G>A was significantly associated with the detectability of MTX-PG5; detectability of MTX-PG5 was lower in patients with the A mutant allele. The present study suggests that detectability of MTX-PG5 in RBC is a possible biomarker for response to MTX, and the RFC1 80G>A mutation is associated with low detectability of MTX-PG5. Prospective studies with a sufficient number of patients are needed to confirm the present findings.
We retrospectively analyzed the bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal Japanese women taking an aromatase inhibitor (AI), exemestane, anastrozole or letrozole, and calculated the decrease rate constant of BMD in each individual to compare the influence of the three AIs on BMD. We also aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) on the AI-induced decrease in BMD. The decrease rate constant of BMD (ke) in each individual was determined as a slope of linear regression of the relationship between time and logarithm of BMD value in each patient during the AI therapy. To compensate for the age-related change in BMD level, we estimated the age-related decrease rate constant of BMD (ke,0) in healthy Japanese postmenopausal women from the literature. AIs decreased BMD with a ke value of −0.0329 yr−1, which was 4.7-fold larger than the ke,0 value of −0.00699 yr−1. No significant difference was detected in the influence on BMD among AIs. Co-administration of BP ameliorated the ke value to −0.0117 yr−1, a value similar to ke,0. The influence of AIs on BMD was quantitatively evaluated by using the decrease rate constant of BMD (ke). The present study also suggests that BPs may be useful to prevent the decrease in BMD induced by AIs.