Evidence is accumulating to strongly suggest that drug transporters are one of the determinant factors governing the pharmacokinetic profile of drugs. Effort has been made to identify genetic variation in drug transporter genes. In particular, genetic variations of the human ABCB1 (MDR1) gene have been most extensively studied. Hitherto more than fifty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletion polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene have been reported. However, at the present time, information is still limited with respect to the actual effect of those genetic polymorphisms on the function of ABCB1. In this context, we have undertaken functional analyses of ABCB1 polymorphisms. To quantify the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the substrate specificity of ABCB1, we have developed a high-speed screening system and a new structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis method. This review addresses functional aspects of the genetic polymorphism of ABCB1 and provides the standard method to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms on the function.
The objectives of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model for telmisartan based on the pooled data obtained from the different racial populations and then to identify the factors that affect the pharmacokinetics of telmisartan for the comparison between the regions. A PPK model was established based on the data of 1343 subjects in 12 clinical trials. The PK profiles of telmisartan were described with a 2-compartment model with first-order absorption. The obtained model could predict the observed plasma concentrations well. This PPK model suggested that CL/F was a function of age, dose, gender, race, alcohol consumption and liver function. A marked difference was observed in the plasma concentration profiles between Japanese and other countries' subjects. However, the effect of the factor “race” on CL/F was not large. In the present PPK model, “trial condition” affected all PK parameters except for V2/F. The condition differences were in food condition and formulation (Japanese: fed, capsule, US and EU: fasted, tablet). The extent of difference in the plasma concentration profiles simulated for Japanese and Caucasian using the PPK model under the same demographic condition was comparable with the results of the food effect study performed previously in Japan. The findings suggest that the difference in the plasma concentration profiles between Japanese and other countries' subjects was mainly due to the difference of food intake conditions under which the clinical trials were performed.
The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between the pharmacokinetic parameters of telmisartan and the occurrence of adverse events. In order to perform this study, a total of 1500 adverse events was collected from the eight clinical trials performed in Europe and the United States and the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC) were calculated with the parameters obtained from the population pharmacokinetic model which we have built. Using these data, the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC) were compared between subjects with or without the occurrence of adverse events. The Mann-Whitney test was performed to analyze ten adverse events selected based on the order of frequency. For eight of these ten adverse events, no significant between-group difference was observed in any pharmacokinetic parameter. For two adverse events, pain and sinusitis, the pharmacokinetic parameters, Cmax and AUC, were greater in subjects with adverse events as compared with those without adverse events, but the intersubject variability of pharmacokinetic parameters was large and there were many subjects in whom Cmax and AUC were high without any adverse event. These results suggest that there is no clear relationship between pharmacokinetic parameters of telmisartan and the occurrence of adverse events.
To clarify whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is transported in rat intestinal epithelial cells, the transport of FITC-LPS across colonic epithelial cells in normal and LPS-exposured rats using a diffusion chamber was examined. The expression of CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was also examined. Rats were given 10 mg/kg LPS i.p. injection at 4 hr prior to the isolation of colonic epithelial tissues. The permeation rate across colonic mucosa by FITC-LPS was several times greater in the mucosal to serosal (M to S) direction than in the opposite direction in both normal and LPS-exposured rats. Increased M to S permeation by FITC-LPS was evident at 37°C, but not at 4°C. The permeability of FITC-LPS in both the M to S and S to M directions was inhibited by unlabeled LPS, anti-CD14 antibody or anti-TRL4 antibody in normal rat. In LPS-exposured rat, the inhibition in the M to S direction was observed by anti-TLR4 antibody, but not by unlabeled LPS and anti- CD14 antibody. In contrast, the permeability in the S to M direction was decreased only by unlabeled LPS in LPS-exposured rat. In normal rat, the expression of CD14 and TLR4 was found in the mucosal and serosal sides. In LPS-exposured rat, the expression of CD14 was not observed in the mucosal side. The electrophysiological parameters by LPS exposure remain unchanged. These findings suggest the possibility that colonic epithelial cells contain specific transport systems for LPS, one of which shows some degree of substrate specificity with the interaction of CD14 and/or that of TLR4.
The loss of renal mass induces tubular hypertrophy as well as glomerular sclerosis and results in the end stage of renal disease. However, there is little information about adaptation of tubular glucose and peptide reabsorption under conditions of chronic renal failure. In the present study, we performed functional and molecular analyses focused on the tubular reabsorption of filtered glucose and small peptides using 5/6 nephrectomized rats at 16 weeks, as a model of chronic renal failure. Sixteen weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy or sham treatment, the brush-border membranes and total RNA were obtained from the renal cortex to evaluate the uptake of Na+ gradient-dependent D-glucose and H+ gradient-dependent glycylsarcosine. The amounts of SGLT and PEPT mRNA levels were quantified by competitive PCR. The urinary glucose/creatinine ratio was markedly higher in nephrectomized rats than in sham-operated controls. Na+-dependent glucose uptake by the isolated renal brush-border membrane vesicles was markedly decreased in nephrectomized rats compared with that in sham-operated controls. However, H+-dependent peptide transport, another secondary active transport system in the brush-border membranes, was maintained. In addition, kinetic analysis revealed that both SGLT1 (high-affinity type)- and SGLT2 (low-affinity type)-mediated Na+/glucose uptake had markedly decreased Vmax values, but not Km values. Futhermore, competitive PCR demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of SGLT2, PEPT1 and PEPT2, but not SGLT1, were markedly depressed. These findings suggested that loss of SGLT2 during chronic renal failure implies a high risk of renal glucosuria.
Sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents have interindividual variability in the gastrointestinal absorption rate. However, the absorption mechanism at the intestinal epithelium has not yet been clarified. To elucidate contribution of the specific mechanism for transepithelial transport of sulfonylureas, the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical transport studies of tolbutamide were carried out using Caco-2 cell monolayers cultured on the polycarbonate membrane. The transported amounts of the substrate were measured by HPLC to estimate the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp). In the apical-to-basolateral flux, the transport activity of tolbutamide was facilitated when the pH of the apical medium was more acidic than the basolateral one. ATP-depletion decreased the Papp of tolbutamide. The kinetic analysis of the permeation rate indicated that the saturable process largely contributed to the tolbutamide flux. The Papp of tolbutamide was lowered by an ionophore and monocarboxylic acids, while dicarboxylic acids and the inhibitor for the anion exchanger had no effect. In addition, mutual inhibition with benzoic acid was observed in transepithelial transport of tolbutamide. On the other hand, the permeation rate of tolbutamide from the basolateral to apical side was concentration-independent and neither affected by metabolic inhibitors, probenecid nor inhibitors for P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, these results suggest that apical-to-basolateral transport of tolbutamide across the Caco-2 cell monolayers is mediated by the pH-dependent specific system, presumably shared with other organic anions such as benzoic acid.
In this study, a simple in vitro method for detecting human P450 (CYP) quasi-irreversible and irreversible inhibitors was evaluated. For the method, cDNA-expressed CYPs were applied to microtiter plate assays, CYP inhibitors were co-incubated with fluorometric substrates, and IC50 were continuously measured (without stopping enzyme reactions). The typical reversible inhibitors (sulfaphenazole, tranylcypromine, quinidine, ketoconazole) showed constant IC50 throughout the reaction. In contrast, the typical quasi-irrversible inhibitors (isosafrole, erythromycin, troleandomycin, diltiazem) and the typical irreversible inhibitors (furafylline, propranolol, mifepristone) showed time-dependent decreases in IC50. For CYP3A4 inhibition studies, two substrates, 7-benzyloxyresorufin (BzRes) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC), were used. The IC50 of the CYP3A4 inhibitors were dependent on the substrate. However, the quasi-irreversible and irreversible inhibitors could be detected by examining changes in the IC50, regardless of the substrate. Further, the detection method was applied to josamycin and bergamottin. Josamycin did not show definite time-dependent decreases in IC50 for CYP 3A4, suggesting that josamycin is neither a quasi-irrversible nor an irreversible inhibitor of CYP3A4. On the other hand, bergamottin showed time-dependent decreases in IC50 for CYP1A2, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19, CYP 2D6 and CYP 3A4, suggesting that bergamottin is a quasi-irrversible or an irreversible inhibitor of the 5 CYP isoforms. This method provides more rapid and reliable detection of quasi-irreversible and irreversible inhibitors and may be useful in drug discovery.
The uses for drug delivery systems of two soybean oil fat emulsions prepared with an emulsifying agent, phosphatidyl choline (PC) or Pluronic F-127 (PLU), were examined comparatively in vivo and in vitro. In the presence of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in vitro, the mean particle size of the PLU emulsion changed less than that of the PC emulsion. The production of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) from the PLU emulsion in the presence of LPL was smaller than that from the PC emulsion. These in vitro results indicate that the PLU emulsion is more stable than the PC emulsion. Plasma NEFA concentration following intravenous administration of the emulsions decreased with time for the PC emulsion, but was kept lower and constant for the PLU emulsion, supporting the in vitro stability data. The order of plasma cyclosporine A (CsA) concentration following intravenous administration in the above two emulsions and the mixed solution of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) and dimethylamide (DMA) in rats was PLU emulsion>PC emulsion>PEG/DMA solution. The plasma concentration was maintained higher and tissue distribution lower for the PLU emulsion than for other formulations. The uptake of oil violet (OV) into the rat parenchymal cells from the PLU emulsion was approximately half that from the PC emulsion, but the uptake into the Kupffer cells was almost equal in both emulsions. In conclusion, these emulsifying agents can control plasma elimination and tissue distribution of lipophilic drugs included in the emulsion. The use of the emulsion formulation makes it possible to avoid side effects through the reduction of drug uptake into non-targeted tissues.
A generic form of vancomycin for I.V. infusion (MEEK) is more soluble and stable than the brand-name form of vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) due to the addition of two inactive ingredients: D-mannitol and Macrogol400 (PEG400). The aim of the present study was to compare the nephrotoxicity of MEEK with that of brand-name VCM (S-VCM) and to analyze the pharmacokinetics of these preparations. Following administration to rats at the clinical dose of 40 mg/kg, there was no difference between MEEK and S-VCM with regard to pharmacokinetics and effects on the kidneys, indicating that MEEK should be as effective as S-VCM. When administered at the nephrotoxic dose of 400 mg/kg, S-VCM caused impairment of renal function and kidney damage, and an increase of the plasma concentration due to decreased renal clearance was observed. In contrast, MEEK had virtually no effect on renal function or the kidneys and did not cause a marked change of renal clearance. These findings suggest that the inactive ingredients in MEEK play a role in reducing the nephrotoxicity of VCM.
The effect of water-soluble chitosan, a natural polymer used as a dietary supplement, on human bladder-tumor cells was investigated. Apoptotic morphological change was demonstrated by nuclear staining. Chitosan-treated cells showed elevation of caspase-8-like activity, but no significant elevation of caspase-9-like activity, which suggest that proapoptotic effect of chitosan is attributable to death receptor activation and not to activation of the mitochondria-cytochrome c pathway. Chitosan increased expression of TNF-R1, but decreased Fas expression. Use of monoclonal antibodies to inhibit death-receptor signal transduction did not attenuate the proapoptotic activity of chitosan. Examination of death-ligands revealed that TNFα mRNA expression was markedly increased by chitosan treatment while FasL mRNA was not affected. Although the direct interaction of chitosan with death receptors remains unidentified, the results suggest that its proapoptotic effect might be related to interaction with TNFα or TNF-R1.