An attempt has been made to review the nonlinearities in the disposition in vitro, in situ, in loci and in vivo mainly from a theoretical point of view. Parallel Michaelis-Menten and linear (first-order) eliminations are often observed in the cellular uptake, metabolism and efflux of drugs. The well-stirred and parallel-tube models are mainly adopted under steady-state conditions in perfusion experiments, whereas distribution, tank-in-series and dispersion models are often used under nonsteady-state conditions with a pulse input. The analysis of the nonlinear local disposition in loci is reviewed from two points of view, namely an indirect method involving physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) and a direct (two or three samplings) method using live animals. The nonlinear global pharmacokinetics in vivo is reviewed with regard to absorption, elimination (metabolism and excretion) and distribution.
This study was initiated to functionally characterize multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP)-mediated transport across the lung epithelium. Alveolar type II cells were isolated from rabbit lung and cultured on Transwell until forming a tight monolayers. After the cell monolayer was preloaded with monochlorobimane (mBCl) that is metabolized to a fluorescent glutathione conjugate (mBCl-SG), amount of mBCl-SG exported to apical and basal compartments were measured periodically. mBCl-SG was more preferentially exported in the apical direction than in the basolateral direction. Efflux of mBCl-SG from alveolar epithelial cells was significantly inhibited by a MRP inhibitor MK-571. Pharmacokinetic analysis of efflux profiles revealed that increased efflux of mBCl-SG by B[a]P is not due to enhanced MRP activity but simply due to an elevated level of mBCl-SG in the cells. Elevation of the intracellular level of mBCl-SG corresponded well to that of reduced GSH caused by B[a]P pretreatment.
The immunosuppressive interactions of calcium channel antagonists [diltiazem (Dil), verapamil (Ver) and nifedipine (Nif)], with corticosteroids [methylprednisolone (Mpl), prednisolone (Prd)], and macrolides [tacrolimus (Tac) and sirolimus (Sir)] were examined in human whole blood lymphocyte cultures. Gender-related differences in responses in the interactions between these drug classes were studied using blood from 6 males and 6 females. The nature and intensity of interactions were determined using an extended Loewe additivity model. All immunosuppressants exhibited higher potency than the calcium channel antagonists with mean IC50 values of:
Gender-related differences in responses to Mpl and Prd were observed while the others were not significant. Additive interactions were found among calcium channel antagonists and corticosteroids. Significant synergistic interactions were observed between calcium channel antagonists and tacrolimus and sirolimus, although these are unlikely to be of clinical importance. These studies demonstrate diverse drug interactions in the examination of an important array of immunosuppressant drug combinations.
In the present study, the effects on expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5), carboxylesterase (CES1 and CES2) and sulfotransferase (CHST1, CHST3, CHST4, CST, SULT2A1 and TPST2) mRNA in primary cultures of cryopreserved human hepatocytes were evaluated after exposure to NO-1886 (diethyl 4-[(4-bromo-2-cyanophenyl) carbamoyl] benzylphosphonate) for 48 hr at 2, 10, and 50 μM. Analysis was performed by RT-PCR in the presence of TaqMan probe. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA levels after exposure to 50 μM omeprazole (positive control for CYP1As) were increased by 162 (p<0.001) and 37 times (p<0.001), respectively, compared with untreated controls. However, these mRNA levels were increased by 2 times or less after exposure to NO-1886. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 mRNA levels after exposure to 50 μM rifampicin (positive control for CYP3As) were significantly increased by 5.8 (p<0.01) and 2.0 times (p<0.01), respectively, compared with untreated controls. The CYP3A4 mRNA level after exposure to 10 μM NO-1886 was increased by 1.3 times (p<0.05). Further, the CYP3A4 mRNA level after exposure to 50 μM NO-1886 was significantly increased by 3.6 times (p<0.001). However, the CYP3A5 mRNA level after exposure to 50 μM NO-1886 was not significantly increased. CES1 and CES2 mRNA levels after exposure to 50 μM NO-1886 were significantly increased by 1.4 (p<0.05) and 2.6 times (p<0.01), respectively, compared with untreated controls. CHST1, CST and SULT2A1 mRNA levels after exposure to 50 μM NO-1886 were significantly increased by 3.8 (p<0.001), 1.8 (p<0.01) and 4.4 times (p<0.01), respectively. CHST3, CHST4 and TPST2 mRNA levels after exposure to 50 μM NO-1886 were not significantly increased. This in vitro technique using primary cultured human hepatocytes is expected to be very useful for the preclinical evaluation of the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans.
The metabolic extraction of diltiazem was examined in conjunction with its absorption, using rat small intestine perfused in situ by the single-pass method, to clarify its intestinal metabolism. This is a topic of increasing interest which has not been fully clarified, particularly as far as the extent of metabolic extraction and the enzymes involved (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and/or others) are concerned. The intestinal availability (Fi) of diltiazem was evaluated at steady-state by dividing the fraction absorbed into the mesenteric venous blood (Fa,b) by the fraction that disappeared from the intestinal lumen (Fa). The Fi of diltiazem (0.05 mM) was 0.126 and, hence, the extraction ratio (Ei=1-Fi) was 0.874, indicating that diltiazem undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism during its passage through the intestinal mucosa. The Ei was unchanged when the concentration was increased to 0.5 mM, suggesting that metabolism is linear over this concentration range. Thereafter, Ei decreased with concentration, demonstrating saturable metabolism, and reached an insignificant level at the highest concentrations of 30 and 50 mM. The decrease in Ei, or increase in Fi, was brought about by an increase in Fa,b (from about 0.02 to about 0.05) in the concentration range up to 10 mM and by a decrease in Fa (from about 0.15 to about 0.05) at concentrations higher than that. These results suggest that the extraction observed at the lower concentrations is almost solely attributable to metabolic extraction of a saturable nature. However, ketoconazole and cyclosporin A, which are specific CYP3A inhibitors, inhibited the metabolic extraction of diltiazem (0.05 mM) by only about 20% at the concentration (40 μM) at which they inhibited CYP3A almost completely, suggesting that the contribution of CYP3A to intestinal diltiazem metabolism is not marked. Thus, the present study demonstrates that diltiazem undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the rat small intestine, although the contribution of CYP3A seems to be relatively minor.
Ribavirin has recently been demonstrated to be efficacious in combination with interferon (IFN) α-2b for the treatment of relapsed hepatitis C infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the pharmacokinetics and adverse reactions of ribavirin when ribavirin plus IFN α-2b were administered to patients affected with chronic hepatitis C. Nineteen patients received intramuscular IFN α-2b at a dose of 6 or 10 million units and oral ribavirin at 600 mg or 800 mg daily for 24 weeks. The pharmacokinetic profiles of ribavirin were assessed by the measurement of plasma concentrations. Twelve patients were continuously given both ribavirin and IFN α-2b, whereas in 7 patients the therapy was discontinued due to severe adverse drug reactions such as skin eruption, anemia and depression. There were no significant differences in ribavirin dose, Hb, ALT and AST values between the continued and the discontinued therapy groups. In contrast, the pretreatment platelet level and patient age of the discontinued therapy group were significantly different to the continued group. The trough plasma concentration of ribavirin in the discontinued therapy group was significantly higher than that in the continued group at week 1. These results suggest that the monitoring of plasma ribavirin concentrations may be valid for predicting the early phase of adverse drug reactions, thereby providing useful information for the adjustment of the ribavirin dosing for each patient.
As a part of the studies conducted by the Pharma SNPs Consortium (PSC), the enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 variants with altered amino acids as a result of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found among the Japanese population were analyzed under a unified protocol using the same lots of reagents by the laboratories participating in the PSC. Mutations in CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and the wild type and mutated CYP molecules were expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed cytochrome P450s were purified and the enzyme activities were measured in reconstitution systems. CYP1A2 and CYP1A2Gln478His did not show any differences in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. CYP2A6 and CYP2A6Glu419Asp metabolized coumarin to form 7-hydroxycoumarin in a similar manner, whereas CYP2A6Ile471Thr showed low activity compared to the wild-type CYP2A6. CYP2B6, CYP2B6Pro167Ala and CYP2B6Arg487Cys showed the same activity for 7-ethoxy-4-triflouromethyl-coumarin O-deethylation. However, CYP2B6Gln172His was roughly twice as active as CYP2B6 and the other CYP2B6 variants for 7-ethoxy-4-triflouromethylcoumarin O-deethylation activity. Although higher inter- and intra-laboratory variations were observed for the calculated Km and Vmax values because the studies were conducted in several different laboratories, the degree of variations was reduced by the increased number of analyses and the adoption of a simple analysis system.
We have recently found that the frequency of OATP-C*15 is significantly higher in patients who experienced myopathy after receiving pravastatin or atorvastatin than in patients without myopathy. However, there were two patients who experienced pravastatin-induced myopathy despite the fact that they did not possess OATP-C*15 or other known mutations of OATP-C that have been reported to decrease the function of OATP-C. In this study, we sequenced all of the exons and exon-intron junctions of OATP-C of the two patients and found a novel mutation in exon 12 of OATP-C in one of the patients. In this mutation (1628T>G), there is a substitution of Leu to Trp at position 543 in transmembrane-spanning domain 10 of OATP-C. However, the frequency of this mutation in the Japanese population appears to be very low (<1%).